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Топик English Traditions — Английские традиции

Топик English Traditions

Every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions. In Britain traditions play a more important part in the life of the people than in other countries.

Englishmen are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. It has been the law for about three hundred years that all the theatres are closed on Sundays. No letters are delivered, only a few Sunday papers are published.

To this day an English family prefers a house with a garden to a flat in a modern house with central heating. English people like gardens.

Holidays are especially rich in old traditions and are different in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and England. Christmas is a great English national holiday, and in Scotland it is not kept at all, except by clerks in banks; all the shops, mills and factories are working. But six days later, on New Years Eve the Scotch begin to enjoy themselves. All the shops, mills and factories are closed on New Years Day.

People invite their friends to their houses and "sit the Old Year out and the New Year in".

When the dock begins to strike twelve, the head of the family goes to the entrance door, opens it wide and holds it until the last stroke. Then he shuts the door. He has let the Old Year out and the New Year in.

[ перевод ]

Английские традиции

У каждой нации и в каждой стране есть свои обычаи и традиции. В Великобритании традиции играют более важную роль в жизни людей, чем в других странах.

Англичане гордятся своими традициями и тщательно сберегают их. В течение приблизительно трехсот лет существовал закон, что все театры закрываются по воскресеньям. Не доставляются никакие письма, и издается только несколько воскресных газет.

По сей день английская семья предпочитает дом с садом квартире в современном доме с центральным отоплением. Англичане любят сады.

Праздники особенно богаты старыми традициями и отличаются в Шотландии, Ирландии, Уэльсе и Англии. Рождество — большой английский национальный праздник, а в Шотландии его не придерживаются вообще, кроме клерков в банках; все магазины, заводы и фабрики работают. Но шесть дней спустя, накануне Нового города шотландцы начинают празднование. Все магазины, заводы и фабрики закрыты на Новый год.

Люди приглашают своих друзей к себе домой, чтобы проводить Старый год и встретить Новый год.

Когда часы начинают бить двенадцать, глава семьи идет ко входной двери и открывает ее широко и держит ее до последнего удара. Затем он закрывает дверь. Он выпустил Старый год и впустил Новый год.

Топик English Traditions — Английские традиции

Смотреть далее | 16.01.2023 | Отправить ссылку друзьям

Топик US Holidays and Traditions — Праздники и традиции США

Топик US Holidays and Traditions — Праздники и традиции США

Like any other country the USA has a lot of holidays and interesting traditions. In 1971, the dates of most federal holidays in the USA were officially moved to the nearest Monday by President Nixon. There are four holidays which are not necessarily celebrated on Mondays: Thanksgiving, New Year's Day, Independence Day and Christmas. When New Year's Day, Independence Day, or Christmas falls on a Sunday, the next day is also a holiday. When one of these holidays falls on a Saturday, the previous day is also a holiday.

Federal government offices, including the post office, are always closed on all federal legal holidays. Schools and companies don't work on such major holidays as Independence Day and Christmas but many people work, on Veterans' Day, for example.

Federal legal holidays are observed differently in different states. The dates of these holidays are appointed by the state government. Each state can agree on the same date that the President has proclaimed, such as Thanksgiving. There are other legal or public holidays which are observed at the state or local level. The closing of local government offices and businesses varies. Whether citizens have the day off from work or not, depends on the decision of local authorities.

In the United States New Year's Day is on January 1, but Americans begin celebrating on December 31. A lot of parties take place across the United States on this day. Sometimes people have masked balls, when guests dress up in costumes and cover their faces with masks. Following an old tradition, guests unmask at midnight. Most television channels show Times Square in the heart of New York City. It is overcrowded with those who want to celebrate New Year in the centre of the biggest city in the USA. At one minute before midnight, a lit ball drops slowly from the top to the bottom of a pole on one of the buildings. People count down from 10 to 0 at the same time as the ball drops. When it reaches the bottom, people hug and kiss and wish each other Happy New Year!

On January 1, Americans visit relatives, friends and neighbours. Many families watch the Tournament of Roses parade which takes place in California on television. The main theme of this parade varies from year to year. The procession is usually more than five miles long with thousands of participants.

Martin Luther King Day is celebrated on the third Monday in January. Martin Luther King was a black clergyman who tried to win full civil rights for black Americans. King spoke out and campaigned tirelessly to make white and black Americans equal by cancelling some laws, for example, the requirement for black people to take back seats in buses or no right to vote.

In 1968, Martin Luther King was assassinated while he was leading a workers' strike in Memphis, Tennessee. White people and black people who had worked so hard for peace and civil rights were shocked and angry. The world grieved the loss of this man of peace.

Martin Luther King's death did not stop the Civil Rights Movement. Black and white people continued to fight for freedom and equality. On Monday, January 20, 1986, in cities and towns across the USA the first celebration of Martin Luther King Day took place. Schools, offices and federal agencies are closed for the holiday. On Monday there are quiet memorial services in honour of Dr. King. All weekend popular radio stations play songs and speeches that tell the history of the Civil Rights Movement. Television channels broadcast special programmes about King's life.

Memorial Day takes place on the last Monday of May. On this day Americans honour the dead. Most families honour the memories of their dead relatives. In many communities special ceremonies are held in cemeteries or at war monuments by veterans of military services. Parades and memorial services or special programmes in churches, schools or other public meeting places are held.

Independence Day is one of the most important holidays in the USA. It is celebrated on the 4th of July. On this day in 1776 the Declaration of Independence was signed in Philadelphia. There are picnics and parades all over the country on this day. Americans don't work on this day. Communities have day-long picnics with favourite food like hot dogs, hamburgers, potato salad and baked beans. Some cities have parades with people dressed as the original founding fathers who march in parades to the music of high school bands. The day ends with a big fireworks display.

Halloween is a holiday celebrated mostly by children and teens. On the 31st of October they dress as vampires, witches and ghosts and go from house to house saying Trick or treat. People should give them a treat, otherwise they will play a trick on them.

Thanksgiving is one of the most popular American holidays too. It is celebrated on the last Thursday in November. This holiday dates back to the times when the Pilgrims came to America and settled in. Their first winter was very hard, they had very little food. In spring, the Indians showed them how to plant and grow new crops, hunt and fish. The following autumn the colonists made a feast for the Indians.

Today family members meet and spend this day together. The traditional Thanksgiving food is roast turkey, cranberry jelly, pumpkin pie, sweet potatoes, ham and other delicious things. A lot of people go to religious services on Thanksgiving.

Christmas is celebrated on the 25th of December. This is a religious holiday when people celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ. During the holiday season people sing Christmas songs, or carols. There are different types of carols: old traditional songs in English, German, Spanish, French and other languages, religious songs and modern American songs. Another important tradition is to send Christmas cards. People start sending cards to their friends and relatives early in December. Going home for Christmas is another good tradition. Christmas is considered to be the family celebration and family members usually get together on this day.

Americans put up a Christmas tree and decorate it with toys and sweets. Wrapping Christmas presents is another tradition. There are religious ceremonies at churches on Christmas Day and families usually attend them.
In the morning children hurry to the Christmas tree to look for presents. American children believe that Santa Claus lives at the North Pole with his wife. All year round he makes a list of children's names, both those who have been good and those who have been bad. He decides what presents to give to the good children. He and Jiis helpers make presents and wrap them. Children also hang big colourful socks for Santa Claus to put presents inside. Santa is believed to get into a house through the chimney and leave presents in socks. Unwrapping presents is the most exciting moment at Christmas.

План рассказа топика US Holidays and Traditions

  1. Предоставить общую информацию о праздниках в США (federal legal holidays, nearest Monday, observed differently in different states, public holidays, local authorities).
  2. Рассказать о самых популярных праздниках СИТА и традициях (New Year's Day: parties, masked balls, unmask, Times Square, lit ball, count; Tournament of Roses: California, parade, theme; Martin Luther King Day: third Monday in January, civil rights, assassinated, memorial services; Memorial Day: last Monday of May, honour the dead, war veterans; Independence Day: one of the most important holidays, July 4th, Declaration of Independence, picnics, parades, communities, fireworks display; Halloween: October 31, dress up in costumes. Trick or treat; Thanksgiving: last Thursday in November, the Pilgrims, hard winter, little food, the Indians, a feast, roast turkey, cranberry jelly, pumpkin pie, sweet potatoes, etc., religious services; Christmas: December 25th, sing carols, send greetings cards, family members get together, Christmas tree, Santa Claus, colourful socks, chimney).

Вопросы к топику — Questions:

  1. Do government offices work on federal legal holidays?
  2. How are federal legal holidays observed?
  3. How do public holidays depend on local authorities?
  4. How many public holidays are there in Britain? What are they?
  5. How is New Year's Day celebrated in the USA?
  6. How is Thanksgiving usually celebrated?
  7. When were the dates of most federal holidays moved to the nearest Monday?
  8. Which holidays are not necessarily celebrated on Mondays?
  9. What happens on Times Square in New York on December 31st?
  10. What is the Tournament of Roses and where does it take place?
  11. When is Martin Luther King Day celebrated?
  12. Who was Martin Luther King? What was he famous for?
  13. What events take place on this day?
  14. What can you tell about Memorial Day?
  15. Why is Independence Day considered one of the most important holidays in the USA?
  16. What are the Halloween traditions in the USA?
  17. When is Thanksgiving celebrated?
  18. What historic facts are connected to this holiday?
  19. When is Christmas celebrated in the USA?
  20. What are the common traditions at Christmas?

Топик US Holidays and Traditions — Праздники и традиции США

Смотреть далее | 15.01.2023 | Отправить ссылку друзьям

Топик Vacation Trips — Поездки на каникулах

Топик Vacation Trips

Modern life is impossible without travelling. Thousands of people travel every day either on business or for pleasure. They can travel by air, by rail, by sea or by road.

Of course, travelling by air is the fastest and the most convenient way, but it is the most expensive too. Travelling by train is slower than by plane, but it has its advantages. You can see much more interesting places of the country you are travelling through.

Modern trains have very comfortable seats. There are also sleeping cars and dining cars which make even the longest journey enjoyable. Speed, comfort and safety are the main advantages of trains and planes. That is why many people prefer them to all other means.

Travelling by sea is very popular. Large ships and small river boats can visit foreign countries and different places of interest within their own country.

As for me, I prefer travelling by car. I think it's very convenient. You needn't reserve tour tickets. You needn't carry heavy suitcases. You can stop wherever you wish, and spend at any place as much time as you like.

Every year my friend and I go somewhere to the South for holidays. The Black Sea is one of the most wonderful places which attracts holiday-makers all over the world. There are many rest-homes, sanatoriums and tourist camps there.

But it is also possible to rent a room or a furnished house for a couple of weeks there. Sometimes, we can place ourselves in a tent on the sea shore enjoying fresh air and the sun all day long.

As a rule, I make new friends there. In the day-time we play volley-ball, tennis, swim in the warm water of the sea and sunbathe. In the evening.

I like to sit on the beach watching the sea and enjoying the sunset. I'm fond of mountaineering. So I do a lot of climbing together with my friends. Time passes quickly and soon we have to make our way back. We return home sunburnt and full of impressions.

[ перевод на русский язык ]

Поездки на каникулах

Современная жизнь невозможна без путешествий. Сотни людей путешествуют: ездят либо в командировки, либо для удовольствия. Они могут путешествовать на самолете, поезде, корабле или на автомобиле.

Конечно, путешествовать самолетом — самый быстрый и наиболее удобный способ, но он также и самый дорогой-Путешествие поездом медленнее, чем путешествие на самолете, но оно имеет свои преимущества. Вы можете видеть намного больше достопримечательностей страны» по которой вы путешествуете.

Современные поезда оборудованы очень удобными местами. Имеются также спальные вагоны и вагоны-рестораны, которые превращают даже самое длинное путешествие в удовольствие. Скорость, удобство и безопасность — основные преимущества поездов и самолетов. Вот почему многие люди предпочитают их другим транспортным средствам.

Путешествие по морю очень популярно. На больших кораблях и маленьких лодках можно посещать иностранные государства и разные интересные места своей страны.

Что касается меня, я предпочитаю путешествие на автомобиле. Я думаю, что это очень удобно. Вам не надо резервировать билеты на поезд, не надо нести тяжелые чемоданы. Вы можете останавливаться, где вам хочется, и в любом месте проводить столько времени, сколько пожелаете.

Каждый год мы с другом едем куда-нибудь на юг на каникулы. Черное море — одно из самых замечательных мест, которое привлекает отдыхающих со всего мира. Там много домов отдыха, санаториев и турбаз.

Можно также снять комнату или меблированный дом на пару недель. Иногда мы можем разместиться в палатке на берегу моря и наслаждаться свежим воздухом и солнцем целый день.

Как правило, я там знакомлюсь с новыми друзьями. Днем мы играем в волейбол, теннис, плаваем в теплой морской воде и загораем. Вечером я люблю сидеть на лавочке, глядя на море и наслаждаясь закатом.

Я увлекаюсь альпинизмом и совершаю много восхождений в горы с моими друзьями. Время летит быстро, и вскоре мы должны уезжать. Мы возвращаемся домой загоревшими и переполненными впечатлениями.

Vocabulary:

advantages — преимущества, достоинства
by rail — по железной дороге
climbing — лазанье (по горам)
couple — пара
enjoyable — приносящий радость
either... or — либо... либо
safety — безопасность
to reserve — резервировать
tour — тур, поездка
to rent — снимать, нанимать
mountaineering — альпинизм

Вопросы к топику Questions:

  1. Why is modern life impossible without travelling?
  2. Why is travelling by sea very popular?
  3. Why is travelling by car very convenient?
  4. What is the fastest and the most convenient way of travelling?
  5. Where do you go every year?
  6. Where do you make new friends?

Топик Vacation Trips — Поездки на каникулах

Смотреть далее | 15.01.2023 | Отправить ссылку друзьям

Топик The Tretyakov Gallery — Третьяковская галерея

Топик The Tretyakov Gallery

Moscow is replete with art galleries and museums. Yet there is one gallery that remains a symbol of Russian art. It is the world-famous Tretyakov Gallery.

The founder of the gallery was the entrepreneur Pavel Tretyakov (1832-1898), who was from the merchant class. Beginning in 1856, Tretyakov had a hobby of collecting works by the Russian artists of his time. He was a famous patron of the arts who helped to support the "peredvizhniki" (a movement consisting of realistic painters in the second half of the 19th century). Toward this goal, he intended to purchase a collection from a St. Petersburg collector, Fyodor Pryanishnikov, and, having added his own collection, created a museum. The government bought Pryanishnikov's gallery in 1867, but Tretyakov gradually acquired an excellent collection, exceeding all other collections in Russia in its volume and quality.

In 1892, Pavel Tretyakov donated his entire collection to Moscow. His brother Sergey Tretyakov (1834-1892) was also a collector, but only of Western European paintings.

The brothers' collections were at ,the core of the Moscow Municipal Art Gallery, which opened on August 15,1893. At first, it contained 1,287 paintings and 518 pieces of graphic art by Russian artists, as well as 75 paintings by Western European artists.

Later, the Western European paintings in the Tretyakov Gallery were transferred to the Hermitage and the A. S. Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, and the Tretyakov Gallery began to specialize exclusively in Russian art.

After 1918, the Tretyakov collection grew many times with the inclusion of the collection of Ilya Ostroukhov (1858- 1929), an artist, paintings of the Russian school from the Moscow Rumyantsev Museum, and many private collections. Presently, the gallery is being improved by carefully planned purchases. Already more than 55 thousand works are kept there. There is the rich collection of ancient Russian icon painting of the 12th-17th centuries including Andrei Rublyov's famous "Trinity", as well as significant works of painting and sculpture of the 18th - 19th centuries - paintings by Dmitriy Levitskiy, Fyodor Rokotov, Karl Bryullov, Orest Kiprenskiy, Alexander Ivanov (including his wellknown canvas "The Appearance of Christ Before the People"), Ivan Kramskoy, and sculptures by Fedot Shubin.

The gallery has an excellent selection of the best works by the "peredvizhniki": Ilya Repin (including "Ivan the Terrible and His Son Ivan"), Victor Vasnetsov, Ivan Shishkin, Vasiliy Surikov ("The Morning of the Strelets Execution"), Vasiliy Vereshchagin and others.

The blossoming of many areas of Russian art at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries is also well represented.

Suffice it to name such artists of the period as Mikhail Vrubel, Isaak Levitan, Nicholas Rerikh, Alexander Benua, Mikhail Nesterov, Konstantin Korovin, Mstislav Dobuzhinskiy, Konstantin Somov, Valentin Serov, Boris Kustodiev and Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin. After the relatively short period of the 1910's- 1920's, new movements in art - futurism, cubism, etc. - were quickly developed.

Such an artistic movement as socialist realism also produced a number of talented and original artists. This trend is represented by works of Alexander Deineka, Arkadiy Plastov, Yuri Pimenov, Dmitriy Nalbandyan, and others.

The main building of the gallery includes the renovated Tretyakov home and several buildings that were attached to it at various times. The main facade of the building was erected in 1902 according to plans by the artist Victor Vasnetsov. In 1994, the Tretyakov Gallery opened after 10 years of restoration. This was not just a facelift to the building; the interior and technical equipment were brought up to the highest standards of quality, which is as it should be, since it contains so many treasures of Russian art.

[ перевод на русский язык ]

Третьяковская галерея

В Москве много художественных галерей и музеев. И все же есть одна галерея, которая остается символом русского искусства. Это всемирно известная Третьяковская галерея.

Основателем галереи был предприниматель Павел Третьяков (1832-1898), который принадлежал к купеческому сословию. Начиная с 1856 г. у Третьякова появилось увлечение - коллекционирование произведений русских художников того времени. Он был известным покровителем искусств, поддерживал передвижников (объединение, в которое входили художники-реалисты второй половины XIX века). С этой же целью он намеревался купить коллекцию петербургского коллекционера Федора Прянишникова и вместе со своим собранием картин создать музей. Галерея Прянишникова в 1867 г. была куплена государством, но Третьяков постепенно приобрел отличную коллекцию, превосходящую по объему и ценности другие коллекции в России.

В 1892 г. Павел Третьяков передал в дар Москве всю свою коллекцию. Его брат Сергей Третьяков был также коллекционером, но только западноевропейской живописи.

Коллекции братьев были ядром Московской муниципальной художественной галереи, которая открылась 15 августа 1893 г. Вначале она содержала 1 287 картин и 518 произведений графического искусства русских художников, а также 75 картин западноевропейских художников.

Позже западноевропейские картины Третьяковской галереи были перевезены в Эрмитаж и Музей изобразительных искусств им. А. С. Пушкина. А Третьяковская галерея стала специализироваться исключительно на русском искусстве.

После 1918 г. коллекция Третьякова увеличилась во много раз, включив коллекцию художника Ильи Остроухова, картины художников русской школы из московского Румянцевского музея и многие частные коллекции. В настоящее время галерея пополняется приобретениями, покупка которых тщательно планируется, В ней хранится уже более 55 тысяч произведений. Здесь имеется богатая коллекция древнерусской иконописи XII-XVII вв., включая знаменитую "Троицу" Андрея Рублева, а также выдающиеся произведения искусства и скульптуры XVIII- XIX вв. - картины Дмитрия Левицкого, Федора Рокотова, Карла Брюллова, Ореста Кипренского, Александра Иванова (включая его известное полотно "Явление Христа народу"), Ивана Крамского и скульптуры Федота Шубина.

Галерея содержит прекрасную коллекцию лучших работ передвижников: Ильи Репина (включая картину "Иван Грозный и сын его Иван"), Виктора Васнецова, Ивана Шишкина, Василия Сурикова ("Утро стрелецкой казни"), Василия Верещагина и других.

Лучшие образцы различных видов русского искусства конца XIX - начала XX вв. также хорошо представлены.

Достаточно назвать имена таких художников как Михаил Врубель, Исаак Левитан, Николай Рерих, Александр Бенуа, Михаил Нестеров, Константин Коровин, Мстислав Добужинский, Константин Сомов, Валентин Серов, Борис Кустодиев и Кузьма Петров-Водкин. После сравнительно небольшого периода с 1910 по 1920 годы быстро развивались новые направления в искусстве - футуризм, кубизм и т. д.

Такое направление как социалистический реализм также породило много талантливых и оригинальных художников. Это течение представлено работами Александра Дейнеки, Аркадия Пластова, Юрия Пименова, Дмитрия Налбандяна и других.

Главное здание галереи включает обновленный дом Третьякова и несколько зданий, которые были пристроены к нему в разное время. Главный фасад здания был воздвигнут в 1902 г. согласно планам художника Виктора Васнецова. В 1994 г. Третьяковская галерея открылась после 10-летней реставрации. Это был не только косметический ремонт здания, качество интерьера и технического оборудования доведено до высочайшего уровня мировых стандартов, что само собой разумеется, т. к. в здании хранятся бесценные сокровища русского искусства.

Вопросы к материалу:

  1. What gallery in Moscow is a symbol of Russian art?
  2. What did P. Tretyakov intend to do?
  3. Who bought Pryanishnikov's gallery in 1867?
  4. When was the Moscow Municipal Art Gallery opened?
  5. Who was the founder of the gallery?
  6. What did he make his hobby?
  7. Whom did he support?
  8. His brother Sergey Tretyakov was a collector of Western European paintings, wasn't he?
  9. What did it contain at first?
  10. How many works are kept there now?
  11. What did P. Tretyakov do with his collection in 1892?
  12. Where were the Western European paintings transferred?
  13. What collections are extremely rich and beautiful in the gallery?
  14. Are new art movements of the 1910's-1920's represented in the gallery?
  15. The Tretyakov collection grew many times after 1918, didn't it?
  16. How is the gallery being improved now?
  17. When was the main facade of the gallery erected? According to whose plans was it erected?
  18. When was the Tretyakov Gallery opened after 10 years of restoration? What does its interior look like after the restoration?

Топик The Tretyakov Gallery — Третьяковская галерея

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The Official Holidays in Russia — Официальные праздники в России

Топик The Official Holidays in Russia

  • January 1 New Year's Day
  • January 7 Christmas, Russian Orthodox
  • March 8 International Women's Day
  • May 1-2 Spring and Labour Holiday
  • May 9 Victory Day (Over German Nazism in the WW2)
  • June 12 Independence Day
  • August 22 Day of the Russian Federation State Flag
  • November 7 Day of Accord and Conciliation
  • December 12 Constitution Day
  • The New Year is first on the calendar and in popularity. Many celebrate it twice, on January 1 and 14 (which corresponds to January 1 in the Julian calendar, used in Russia before 1918).
  • Next is February 23, Soldier's Day, known until recently as Soviet Army Day, popularly viewed as holiday for all men and closely followed by its female counterpart, Women's Day, March 8, when women receive flowers, presents and are toasted by men.
  • Mayday, until recently officially termed International Workers' Solidarity Day, is now known as Spring and Labour Day. On some years, it occurs on or close to Russian Orthodox Easter, so some people celebrate in church while some attend customary demonstrations.
  • Russia celebrates Victory Day on May 9 to commemorate the millions fallen in World War II. Flowers and wreaths are laid on wartime graves on this day, and veterans come out into the streets wearing their military orders and medals. Alas, there are fewer of them with every passing year.
  • June 12 is Russia's newest holiday, Independence Day, which commemorates the adoption in 1991 of the Declaration of Sovereignty of the Russian Federation.

November 7 — the anniversary of the socialist revolution of October 1917 which established communist power — still survives. The system is gone, but many still cling to the custom.

Church feasts have been reborn. Easter is celebrated nationwide, as of old, and Christmas became a day off. Muslims, Jews and Buddhists also celebrate their feasts without fear of secular authorities.

[ перевод на русский язык ]

Официальные праздники в России

  • 1 января - Новый год
  • 7 января - Российское православное Рождество
  • 8 марта - Международный Женский день
  • 1-2 мая  - День весны и солидарности трудящихся (День труда)
  • 9 мая - День Победы (над немецким нацизмом во Второй мировой войне)
  • 12 июня - День независимости
  • 22 августа - День Государственного Флага Российской Федерации
  • 7 ноября - День Согласия и Примирения
  • 12 декабря - День Конституции
  • Новый год является первым в календаре и по популярности. Многие празднуют его дважды, 1 и 14 января (которое соответствует 1-му января по Юлианскому календарю, которым пользовались в России до 1918 г.).
  • Затем 23 февраля, День Солдата, известный до недавнего времени как День Советской Армии, обычно рассматривается как праздник всех мужчин и вскоре сопровождается своей женской копией, Женским Днем, 8 марта, когда женщины получают от 'мужчин цветы, подарки и поздравления.
  • Первомай, как недавно официально называли Международный День солидарности трудящихся, теперь известен как День весны и труда. Иногда он выпадает на российскую православную Пасху, таким образом, одни люди празднуют его в церкви, в то время как другие посещают общепринятые демонстрации.
  • 9 мая Россия празднует День Победы в память о миллионах погибших во Второй мировой войне. В этот день на солдатских могилах возлагают цветы и венки, а ветераны надевают свои военные ордена и медали и выходят на улицы. Увы, с каждым годом, их все меньше.
  • 12 июня Россия празднует самый молодой праздник, День независимости, в честь принятия в 1991 г. Декларации Суверенитета Российской Федерации.

Все еще отмечается 7 ноября — годовщина Октябрьской социалистической революции 1917 г., которая установила коммунистическую власть. Система ушла в небытие, но многие до сих пор цепляются за обычай.

Заново были возрождены церковные праздники. Пасха празднуется в национальном масштабе, как в старину, а Рождество стало выходным днем. Мусульмане, евреи и буддисты также отмечают свои праздники без страха перед мирскими властями.

The Official Holidays in Russia Официальные праздники в России

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Thanksgiving Day — День Благодарения (США) [2]

Топик Thanksgiving

Thanksgiving is a happy holiday on the fourth Thursday of each November. Americans of all religions celebrate this holiday with big dinners and family reunions. It is a time to remember all the good things in life and to be thankful. Turkey is a traditional Thanksgiving Day Food.

This holiday was founded by the Pilgrims. They were a group of English settlers who came to Massachusetts in 1620. The Pilgrims came to America because they wanted religious freedom.

Their first winter was difficult, and many of the Pilgrims died. But the following year, the corn harvest was good. And there was celebration for three days. That was the first Thanksgiving.

Every Thanksgiving Macy's department store organizes a parade in New York City. In the parade there are balloons of popular cartoon characters, famous television stars, and bands from all over the United States.

Each year, more than 55 million people watch this parade on television. Many other large American cities also have Thanksgiving Day parades.

Watching college football games on television is also a typical Thanksgiving Day activity.

[ перевод на русский язык ]

День благодарения [ 2 ]

Благодарение — веселый праздник, отмечаемый в четвертый четверг ноября. Американцы всех вероисповеданий устраивают в этот день большие обеды и семейные встречи. Это время дано, чтобы вспомнить все хорошее в жизни и быть благодарным за это. Индейка — традиционное блюдо в День благодарения.

Данный праздник был основан пилигримами. Это была группа английских поселенцев, приехавших в штат Массачусетс в 1620 году. Пилигримы приехали в Америку, потому что они хотели свободы в вероисповедании.

Первая зима была тяжелой и многие пилигримы умерли. Но на следующий год урожай зерна был хороший. По этому поводу был устроен трехдневный праздник. Это было первое торжество, посвященное благодарению.

Каждый День благодарения мейсинский универмаг организует парад в Нью-Йорке. На параде развеваются шары в форме популярных мультипликационных персонажей, известные звезды телевидения и музыкальные группы со всех Соединенных Штатов принимают участие в этом празднике.

Каждый год более 55 миллионов человек сморят этот парад по телевизору. Многие крупные города США также организовывают парады на День благодарения.

Телевизионный просмотр футбольных матчей между командами колледжей является типичным времяпрепровождением в этот день.

Вопросы к материалу:

1. What is the meaning of Thanksgiving Day?
2. When is Thanksgiving celebrated?
3. Who were the Pilgrims?
4. What is a traditional food for this holiday?
5. What are traditional Thanksgiving activities?
6. Why did the Pilgrims come to America?

Словарь:

turkey — индейка
reunion — встреча, собрание
settler — поселенец
to found — основать
harvest — урожай
cartoon characters — мультипликационные персонажи
corn — кукуруза, зерно

Thanksgiving Day — День Благодарения (США) [2]

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Топик UK Holidays and Traditions — Праздники и традиции Великобритании

UK Holidays and Traditions — Праздники и традиции Великобритании

There are eight public holidays a year in Great Britain when the British have days off work. They are: Christmas Day, Boxing Day, New Year's Day, Good Friday, Easter Monday, May Day, the spring bank holiday and late summer bank hol¬iday. The term bank holiday applies also to Christmas Day, Boxing Day, Easter Monday, New Year's Day and May Day and dates back to the 19th century when by the Bank Holiday Act of 1871 these days were constituted bank holidays - days on which banks were to be closed.

Most of these holidays are of religious origin, though for the greater part of the population they have long lost, their religious significance and are simply days on which people relax, eat, drink and have fun.
In Great Britain traditions play a more important role in the life of the people than in any other countries. Englishmen are proud of their traditions and keep them up. Holidays are especially rich in old traditions and are different in Scotland, Wales, Ireland and England.

At Easter, the British give each other chocolate eggs, which they open and eat on Easter Sunday. Easter Monday is a holiday and many people go to the country or seaside to rest.

Christmas (celebrated on December 25th) is a great national holiday but it isn't widely celebrated in Scotland (the Scots begin to enjoy themselves on New Year's Eve six days after Christmas). All shops and factories are closed on this day. At Christmas family members wrap their presents and leave them under the Christmas tree or in colourful socks at the end of children's beds.

Boxing Day (December 26th) is the second day of Christmas when people visit their friends and go for long walks. The rich give money and small presents to postmen, servants and the poor. There are several theories about the origins of the name "Boxing Day". Some say that it was the day when people gave a present or Christmas box to those who had worked for them throughout the year. Another theory says that in England many years ago, it was common practice for the servants to carry boxes to their employers when they arrived for their day's work on the day after Christmas. The employers would then put coins in the boxes as special end-of-year gifts.

New Year's Day is not that important in England as, for example, in Scotland. People invite their friends over to sit the Old Year out and the New Year in. When the clock begins to strike midnight, the head of the family goes to the entrance door, opens it and holds it open till the last stroke. Then he shuts the door and goes back to table, and after that greetings and small presents are offered. People usually make resolutions such as to give up smoking, to change their lives, etc.

St. Valentine's Day, celebrated on the 14th of February, is the traditional day for those who are in love. Young people give flowers and greetings cards to their Valentines and spend the day together. This day has been celebrated worldwide.

Halloween, a holiday loved by all children, takes place on October 31. There are a lot of parties, people dress up in costumes of witches, ghosts and other monsters and scare each other. They also cut faces in pumpkins and put a candle inside. Children usually go from one house to another with empty baskets, knock on doors and say: Trick or treat. People should give them something sweet, or they will play a trick on them.
Among historic holidays, Guy Fawkes Night can be mentioned. In 1605, a group of people with their leader, Guy Fawkes, decided to blow up the Houses of Parliament. Fawkes promised to carry out the plan on the fifth of November, but one of the conspirators got frightened and wrote a warning letter to one of the Lords. Guy Fawkes and his helpers were caught and hanged. Since then British people have celebrated this day by burning a doll made of straw and dressed in old clothes on a bonfire. There are fireworks displays everywhere. Children sing Remember, remember the fifth of November. Some dress in old clothes and beg in the street saying Penny for the guy.

План рассказа топика UK Holidays and Traditions

  1. Предоставить общую информацию о праздниках Великобритании (eight public holidays: Christmas Day, Boxing Day, New Year's Day, Good Friday, Easter Monday, May Day, the spring bank holiday and late summer bank holiday; bank holidays and their history).
  2. Рассказать о самых популярных праздниках Великобритании и традициях (important role; proud of; Easter, chocolate eggs, Easter Sunday/Monday, seaside; Christmas: December 25th, shops and factories are closed, wrap presents, Christmas tree, colourful socks; Boxing Day: December 26th, visit friends/go for long walks, the rich give money to the poor, theories; New Year's Day: Scotland, the clock strikes midnight, head of the family, holds the door open, make resolutions; St. Valentine's Day: 14th of February, flowers and greetings cards, Valentines, has been celebrated worldwide; Halloween: October 31, parties, costumes, cut faces in pumpkins, Trick or treat; Guy Fawkes Night: 1605, blow up the Houses of Parliament, the 5th of November, a warning letter, were caught and hanged, burning a doll made of straw, fireworks displays; Remember, remember the fifth of November, Penny for the guy).

Вопросы к топику — Questions:

  1. Is New Year's Day important in England?
  2. How many public holidays are there in Britain? What are they?
  3. What do the British do at Christmas?
  4. What does the term bank holidays mean and why?
  5. What role do traditions play in the life of the British?
  6. What are the traditions at Easter?
  7. What is Boxing Day and what are the theories about its origin?
  8. What are the Scottish traditions of seeing the New Year in?
  9. What celebration takes place on February 14th?
  10. What is Halloween? How is it celebrated?
  11. Who was Guy Fawkes? What do people do on Guy Fawkes Night?

Топик UK Holidays and Traditions Праздники и традиции Великобритании

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Топик US Holidays — Праздники США

Топик US Holidays — Праздники США

The list of holidays in the United States varies from state to state but generally includes the major holidays. Besides Christmas, Easter and St. Valentine's Day celebrated in Christian countries, May Day and Halloween, the celebration of which is very much the same as in Great Britain, there are some specifically American holidays.

Memorial Day is observed in late May. It was introduced in 1868 for the purpose of decorating the graves of Civil Wir veterans and has since become a day on which all war dead are commemorated. Independence Day, or July Fourth commemorates the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. It emerged during the American Revolution and has been the most important patriotic holiday ever since. Traditionally it has been celebrated with the firing of guns and fireworks, parades, open-air meetings, and patriotic speeches. Today local authorities prevent much of the former display of fireworks and use of firearms. Veterans' Day is celebrated on November, 11. It is the holiday formerly observed in the United States as Armistice Day and commemorates the signing of the Armistice ending World War I. The day is set aside in honour of all those who have fought in defense of the United States.

Midsummer day and Midsummer night, names given to the feast of the nativity of St. John the Baptist (June 24) and the preceding night (St. John's Eve, June 23), have been associated with solar ceremonies since long before Christianity. Relics of such ceremonies are the bright bonfires and the merrymaking of midsummer night. Labour Day, the holiday celebrated in the United States and Canada on the first Monday in September to honour the labourer. Columbus Day is a holiday commemorating Christopher Columbus's discovery of America, celebrated on the Monday nearest to October, 12.

Thanksgiving Day commemorates the harvest reaped by the Plymouth Colony in 1621, after a winter of great starvation and privation. The first national Thanksgiving Day was proclaimed by George Washington in 1789. Now Thanksgiving is the fourth Thursday in November. The day is observed by church services and family reunions with the customary turkey dinner reminding of the four wild turkeys served at the Pilgrims' first thanksgiving feast.

Переведите следующие предложения на английский Translate the following sentences into English

  1. День независимости увековечивает принятие Декларации независимости и отмечается стрельбой из ружей, фейерверками, парадами, митингами на открытом воздухе и патриотическими выступлениями.
  2. Список праздников США различается от штата к штату, но обычно включает основные праздники, то есть Рождество, Пасху и День св. Валентина, которые отмечаются в христианских странах, Майский день и некоторые чисто американские праздники.
  3. День поминовения погибших в войнах отмечается в конце мая; он был введен с целью украшения могил ветеранов гражданской войны и является днем, когда чествуются все погибшие в войнах.
  4. День ветеранов ранее праздновался в Америке как День перемирия; он установлен в честь тех, кто защищал США.
  5. Иванов день ассоциируется с обрядами, посвященными солнцу с дохристианских времен, и отмечается яркими кострами и весельем.
  6. День Благодарения отмечается в память об урожае 1621 года после зимы великого голода и лишений.

 

  1. Independence Day commemorates the adoption of the Declaration of Independence and is celebrated with the firing of guns and fireworks, parades, open air meetings and patriotic speeches.
  2. The list of holidays in the United States varies from state to state but generally includes major holidays, that is Christmas, Easter and St. Valentine's Day celebrated in Christian countries, May Day and Hallowe'en and some specifically American holidays.
  3. Memorial Day is observed in late May, was introduced for the purpose of decorating the graves of Civil War veterans and is a day on which all dead are commemorated.
  4. Veteran's Day was formerly observed as Armistice Day and is set in honour of those who have fought in defense of the United States.
  5. Midsummer Day has been associated with solar ceremonies since long before Christianity and is celebrated with bright bonfires and merrymaking.
  6. Thanksgiving Day commemorates the harvest of 1621 after a winter of great starvation and privation.

Топик US Holidays — Праздники США

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The Christmas Feast and Santa Claus — Рождественский банкет и Санта-Клаус

Топик The Christmas Feast and Santa Claus

Christmas takes place on December 25. There are some traditions connected with it. One of them is to give presents to each other. It is not only children and members of family who give presents to each other. It's a tradition to give Christmas presents to the people you work with, to give presents to friends, to send them Christmas cards. Another tradition is to have a Christmas Feast.

On Christmas day, the year's greatest feast was served. Although now we have different foods, the idea is still the same. The feast was started off with drinks and music. Once everyone was seated, the food was served, after dessert, people drank and danced. The banquet lasted hours and was the highlight of the day. During the Feast they served beef, meat pies, roasted duck, geese, pigs, porridge, fancy cakes, and toast. Christmas was a huge celebration filled with lots of eating, drinking, singing, dancing, and gift giving.

The beginning of custom of gift giving during Christmas started from the three wise men, with their three gifts for the Christ child* Since then people have made up different things to tell their children where their Christmas presents came from. Saint Nicholas was known in early Christian legends for saving storm-tossed sailors, standing up for children, and giving gifts to the poor. Although many of his stories can't be proven true, his legend spread throughout Europe, and he was soon known for his extreme generosity and gift giving.

Many stories include him riding through the sky on a horse and wearing his red bishop's cloak, sometimes accompanied by Black Peter, an elf whose job was to punish the bad children. The most known legend is when he walks through the streets in his bishop clothes, carrying a sack full of presents, and leaving a gift on the windowsills of children's houses.

From the different parts of the world, there are different names of Santa Claus, but the spirit of Christmas remains the same. Spanish children call their Santa Balthasar, children in Italy have a female Santa named La Belfana, Denmark has a gnome named Jule-Nissen, Holland has Sinter Klaas, Germany has Sanct Herr, Russia and Ukraine Dedushka Moroz and there are even some places that believe the Christ child brings their presents.

Christmas is a holiday, when all fairy tales come alive. It is time when aunt Happiness and uncle Goodness strolling around, while Dedushka Moroz and Santa Claus give gifts.

[ перевод на русский язык ]

Рождественский банкет и Санта-Клаус

Рождество проходит 25 декабря. Существует несколько традиций, связанных с ним. Одна из них — дарить подарки друг-другу. Дарят подарки не только дети или члены одной семьи. По традиции нужно дарить рождественские подарки людям, с которыми вы работаете, друзьям, посылать им рождественские открытки. Другая традиция — рождественский банкет.

На Рождество бывает самый большой банкет. Хотя сейчас у нас другие кулинарные предпочтения, идея остается та же самая. Как только все рассаживались, начинали подавать еду, после десерта люди пили и танцевали. Банкет продолжался часами и был главным моментом дня. В ходе банкета подавали говядину, пироги с мясом, жареных уток, гусей, свинину, овсянку, праздничные пироги и тосты. Рождество было большим праздником, с большим количеством еды, питья, песен, танцев и подарков.

Традиция дарить подарки началась с тех времен, когда три мудреца сделали три подарка маленькому Иисусу. С тех пор люди выдумывали разные истории, чтобы рассказать своим детям, откуда появились их рождественские подарки. Святой Николас был известен в ранних христианских легендах как спаситель унесенных штормом моряков, защитник детей и податель подарков бедным. Хотя многие из его историй не могут быть достоверно доказаны, легенды о нем распространились по всей Европе и вскоре он стал известен своим чрезвычайным великодушием и подарками.

Во многих историях его описывают едущим по небу на лошади в своем красном плаще, иногда его сопровождает Блэк Питер, эльф, работа которого заключается в наказании плохих детей. Самая известная легенда рассказывает, что он ходит по улицам в одежде епископа с мешком, полным подарков, и кладет их на подоконники окон домов, где живут дети.

В разных частях мира существуют различные имена Санта-Клауса, но дух Рождества остается везде одинаковым. Испанские дети называют своего Санта-Бальтазаром, у детей Италии — это женщина Санта по имени Ла Бельфана, в Дании — гном по имени Джуле Ниссец, в Голландии Зинтер Клаас, в Германии — Занкт Герр, в России и Украине — Дедушка Мороз, в некоторых местах даже полагают, что подарки приносит маленький Христос.

Рождество — это праздник, когда оживают все сказки. Это время, когда тетушка Счастье и дядя Доброта прогуливаются вокруг, а Дедушка Мороз вместе с Санта-Клаусом дарят подарки.

Вопросы к топику:

1. What traditions can be connected with Christmas?
2. When does Christmas take place?
3. Where did the custom of gift giving during Christmas start from?
4. What was Saint Nicholas known for?
5. What was the feast on Christmas day?
6. What kind of holiday is Christmas?
7. What is the most known legend about Saint Nicholas?

The Christmas Feast and Santa Claus Рождественский банкет и Санта-Клаус

Словарь:
feast — праздник
to connect — связывать
highlight — основной момент
goose ( мн.ч. geese) — гусь
roasted duck — жареная утка
fancy — разукрашенный, необычный
wise — мудрый
huge — огромный
to save — спасать
bishop — епископ
to accompany — сопровождать
to toss — бросать, выбрасывать
cloak — плащ
to punish — наказывать
windowsill — подоконник
sack — мешок
to stroll around — бродить, прогуливаться
spirit — дух

Смотреть далее | 14.01.2023 | Отправить ссылку друзьям

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