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Падеж в английском языке

Падеж в английском языке

Падеж – это форма существительного, выражающая его связь с другими словами предложения. В отличие от русского языка, где есть шесть падежей существительного, в английском языке их только два: общий (не имеющий специальных окончаний) и притяжательный (имеющий окончание -'s).

Общий падеж

В этом падеже у существительного нет особых окончаний. В этой форме существительное дается в словаре. Связь существительного с другими словами предложения выражается предлогами, а также определяется местом, занимаемым в предложении (особенно важно его место относительно сказуемого).

Существительные без предлогов

Существительные в общем падеже без предлога переводятся на русский язык в зависимости от места, занимаемого им в предложении.

1) Именительный падеж (кто? что?). Существительное, стоящее перед сказуемым, является подлежащим и переводится именительным падежом:
The student asked the teacher. - Студент спросил преподавателя.

2) Винительный падеж (кого? что?). Существительное, стоящее после сказуемого, является прямым дополнением и переводится винительным падежом без предлога:
The teacher asked the student. - Преподаватель спросил студента.

3) Дательный падеж (кому? чему?). Существительное без предлога, стоящее между сказуемым и прямым дополнением, является косвенным дополнением и переводится дательным падежом без предлога:
The teacher showed the student a picture. - Преподаватель показал студенту картинку.

Существительные с предлогами

Существительные в общем падеже с предлогами выражают отношения, передаваемые русскими косвенными падежами без предлогов либо с предлогами. Например:

1) Родительный падеж (кого? чего?) - of [qv], from [frqm]. Существительное выполняет функцию определения предшествующего существительного:
He had received a letter from his girl-friend. - Он получил письмо от подруги.

Причем предлог of выражает, чаще всего, принадлежность, часть целого, обозначает материал или содержимое емкости (вместилища) чего-либо:

The leg of the table is broken. Ножка стола сломана.
the voice of the girl голос девочки
a dress of blue silk платье из голубого шелка
a bottle of juice бутылка сока

2) Дательный падеж (кому? чему?) - to [tq], for [fq]. Существительное выполняет функцию предложного косвенного дополнения:

I gave the ticket to my sister. Я отдал билет сестре.
He bought a ball for his son. Он купил мяч сыну.

3) Предложный падеж (о ком? о чем?) - about [q'baut], of [qv]. Существительное выполняет функцию предложного косвенного дополнения:
They told us about the exhibition. - Они рассказали нам об этой выставке.
She spoke of literature and music. - Она говорила о литературе и музыке.

4) Творительный падеж (кем? чем?) - by [baI], with [wID]. Существительное с предлогом by выполняет функцию предложного дополнения, обозначая действующую силу после глагола в страдательном залоге:
America was discovered by Columbus. - Америка была открыта Колумбом.
by plane - самолетом

Существительное с предлогом with выполняет функцию предложного дополнения, обозначая предмет, при помощи которого производится действие:
The child usually eats with this spoon. - Ребенок обычно ест этой ложкой.
to cut with a knife - резать ножом

Притяжательный падеж

Существительное в притяжательном падеже является определением к следующему за ним существительному и отвечает на вопрос чей?, обозначая принадлежность предмета. Оно всегда ставится перед определяемым существительным, соответствуя в русском языке родительному падежу или притяжательному прилагательному. При переводе на русский язык определяемое слово, как правило, выносится на первое место.

Форму притяжательного падежа могут иметь одушевленные существительные, обозначающие людей и животных. Неодушевленные существительные, за исключением приведенных ниже случаев, в притяжательном падеже не употребляются.

Притяжательный падеж употребляется, в основном, для передачи различных отношений принадлежности: children’s note-book тетрадь детей, детская тетрадь, dog’s tail хвост собаки.

Образование притяжательного падежа

1) Форма притяжательного падежа существительных в единственном числе образуется путем прибавления окончания ’s (знака апострофа и буквы s) к форме общего падежа. Например: Marat’s friend друг Марата; the girl’s dress платье девочки; the horse’s leg нога лошади.

Если имя собственное оканчивается на s, то возможны два варианта. Либо добавляется (-’s), либо только апостроф ( ’ ). Но в обоих случаях окончание произносится [iz]: James’s coat = James’ coat пальто Джеймса; Charles’s wife = Charles’ wife жена Чарльза; Dickens’s novel = Dickens’ novel роман Диккенса.

Притяжательный падеж составных существительных образуется прибавлением -’s к последнему слову: my mother-in-law’s house ['mADqrInlLz] дом моей тещи.

2) Форма притяжательного падежа существительных, имеющих во множественном числе окончание –s, (-es) образуется прибавлением только одного апострофа ( ’ ), причем в произношении никакого звука не добавляется.
boys - мальчики; boys’ books - мальчиков книги/книги мальчиков
friends - друзья; my friends’ car - моих друзей машина/машина моих друзей

Для существительных, образующих множественное число не с помощью окончания -(e)s, а иным способом, притяжательный падеж строится первым способом - прибавлением окончания -’s:
child ребенок – children дети - children’s bedroom спальня детей
woman женщина – women женщины - women’s handbags сумочки женщин

3) Произносится согласно общим правилам: [s] после глухих согласных, [z] после гласных и звонких согласных, [iz] после шипящих и свистящих звуков.

Неодушевленные существительные

1) Существительные, обозначающие время (year год, month месяц, day день, hour час, minute минута, …), части дня (night ночь, вечер, …), времена года, расстояние (mile миля, kilometer километр, …), стоимость, например: a month’s holiday месячный отпуск, the night’s shadows ночные тени, at a mile’s distance на расстоянии одной мили, five dollar’s worth стоимостью в пять долларов.

2) Существительные, обозначающие следующие понятия: world мир, earth земля, nature природа; continent континент, и их названия; ocean океан, sea море, river река и их названия; country страна, названия стран, и территорий; town, city город и их названия; ship корабль, судно и другие средства передвижения, и их названия; названия газет и др. Например: Africa’s future будущее Африки, the ocean’s roar рев океана, Canada’s population население Канады, London’s museums музеи Лондона, the ship’s crew команда корабля.

3) Собирательные существительные, обозначающие сообщества людей: party партия, army армия, family семья, crew команда, экипаж, society общество, nation нация, government правительство и др. Например: the society’s members члены общества, the nation’s wealth богатство нации.

4) Существительные, обозначающие звезды и планеты, например: the moon’s surface поверхность луны, the sun’s rays солнечные лучи; лучи солнца.

5) Такие наречия времени, как: today сегодня, yesterday вчера, tomorrow завтра. Например: today’s newspaper сегодняшняя газета, yesterday’s excursion вчерашняя экскурсия.

6) Притяжательный падеж могут иметь местоимения, заменяющие одушевленные существительные: somebody, someone кто-то, anybody, anyone кто-нибудь, everyone, everybody все, nobody, no one никто и др. Например: It’s nobody’s business. Это никого не касается.

Особенности употребления

1) Существительное в притяжательном падеже, так же как и притяжательное местоимение, вытесняет собой артикль определяемого слова:

the newspaper
yesterday’s newspaper
my newspaper
(эта) газета
вчерашняя газета
моя газета

Но само существительное в притяжательном падеже сохраняет свой собственный артикль:

the children’s mother
a friend’s advice
Kate's friends
мать детей
совет одного из друзей
Катины друзья

В приведенном примере артикль the относится к слову children, артикль a – к слову friend, Kate - имя собственное и не требует артикля, а определяемые существительные: mother, advice и friends - употребляются без артикля.

2) Если существительное имеет при себе другие определения, то существительное в притяжательном падеже ставится перед ними:
the student’s new dictionary - новый словарь студента

Само существительное в притяжательном падеже тоже может иметь при себе определение. Определение, стоящее перед словом в притяжательном падеже, относится к слову в притяжательном падеже:
the new student’s dictionary - словарь нового студента

3) Если два, или более, лица обладают одним и тем же предметом, то окончание притяжательного падежа прибавляется к последнему существительному:
Mike and John’s book - книга Майка и Джона

В притяжательном падеже могут стоять также группы слов, представляющие одно смысловое целое. При этом окончание -’s принимает последнее слово группы:
The King of Belgium’s daughter. - Дочь короля Бельгии.

4) Иногда существительные в притяжательном падеже употребляются без определяемого ими существительного. Например, чтобы избежать повторения:
My sister’s room is larger than my brother’s. (room) - Комната моей сестры больше, чем моего брата (комната).

Наиболее часто это происходит, когда определяемое существительное обозначает место (house - дом, office - контора, shop - магазин и т. д.), например:
I dined at my friend’s. - Я обедал у друга (дома).
We are going to the Black’. - Мы идем к Бэлекам (домой).

В разговорной речи в притяжательном падеже часто называются небольшие специализированные магазины: the butcher’s мясной магазин, the baker’s булочная, the chemist’s аптека.

5) Притяжательный падеж употребляется в некот. устойчивых словосочетаниях: needle’s eye игольное ушко, for order’s sake порядка ради; For goodness’ sake. Ради бога.

6) Форма притяжательного падежа может быть заменена конструкцией с предлогом of.
the girl’s voice = the voice of the girl -голос девочки
the boy’s father = the father of the boy - отец мальчика

Если за существительным следует развернутое определение, причастный оборот или придаточное определительное предложение, то это существительное в притяжательном падеже не употребляется, и требуется конструкция с предлогом of, например:
This is the house of the boy who was my best friend. (нельзя boy’s house) - Это дом мальчика, который был моим лучшим другом.

7) Если указывается принадлежность чего-либо не одушевленному лицу, а предмету то употребляется конструкция с предлогом of:
the legs of the chair - ножки стула

Или существительные в общем падеже ставятся подряд, причем первое существительное является определением ко второму:
the city’s council = the city council - городской совет

Смотреть далее | 19.02.2017 | Отправить ссылку друзьям

Названия блюд на английском языке

Названия блюд на английском языке

Блюдо на русскомПеревод на английскийБлюдо на русскомПеревод на английский
АнтрекотEntrecote, steakОтбивнаяCutlet
АзуAzuОмлетOmelette
БеляшRound fried meat pieПастилаMarshmallow sticks
БалыкBalykOтбивная свинаяPork chop
БефстрогановBeef StroganoffПасхаPaskha
БиточкиRound rissoles, meatballsПаштетPaste
Биг макBig MacПахлаваBaklava
Бифштекс(Beef) steakПекинская уткаPeking(-style) duck
БорщBorscht, borschПирогPie
БлинPancake, flapjackПельмениMeat dumplings
БотвиньяBotviniaПиццаPizza
БуженинаCold baked porkПлюшкаBun
БубликDoughnut-shaped bread rollПловPilau, palaw, pilaff
БульонBouillon; brothПохлёбкаSoup, pottage
БутербродBread and butter (с маслом); Open sandwich (с другими продуктами)ПряникSpice cake
ВареньеPreserve, jamРагуRagout
ВареникCurd, fruit dumplingПудингPudding
ВатрушкаCurd tartРассольникRassolnik
ВинегретBeetroot saladРождественский гусьRoast goose
ВермишельVermicelliРасстегайRasstegai
ГаспачоGazpachoРулет (мясной или рыбный)Roll
ГамбургерHamburger, burgerРостбифRoast beef
Гоголь-могольEgg-and-sugar shakeРулет (кондитер.)Swiss roll
ГренкиPieces of toasted breadСалатSalad
ГолубцыStuffed cabbage rollРулькаShin
ГуляшGoulashСалямиSalami
ДраникиPotato pancakesСамсаSamosa
ЖаркоеRoast (meat)СвекольникBeet(root) soup
ЗаливноеAspicСельдь под шубойDressed herring
ЗапеканкаBaked puddingСолянкаSolyanka
ЗразыZrazyСтуденьGalantine; meat jelly (мясной)
ЗбитеньSbitenСпагеттиSpaghetti
КаравайRound loafСувлакиSouvlaki
Картофельное пюреMashed potatoes; potato mashСуп лапшаNoodle soup
Картофель жареныйFried potatoesСуп гороховыйPea soup
Картофель фриDeep-fried potatoesСуп куриныйChicken soup
Картофель в мундиреPotatoes boiled in their jacketsСуп грибнойMushroom soup
Каша Porridge; kasha Суп луковый Onion soup
Каша гречневая Boiled buckwheat Суп молочный Milk soup
Каша манная Cooked semolina Суп рыбный Fish soup
Каша овсяная Porridge Суп харчо Kharcho
Каша перловая Boiled pearl barley Суши Sushi
Каша пшённая Millet porridge Сырник Curd fritter, cottage cheese pancake
Каша рисовая Cream of rice Сэндвич Sandwich
Квашеная капуста Sauerkraut Тефтели (Small) meatballs
Кебаб Kebab Тюря Turya
Клёцки Trickled pastries Уха Fish soup
Кляр Tempura Фондю Fondue
Кнедлик Knodel Фрикадельки Meatball, fishball
Козинаки Nuts-and-honey bar Фрикасе Fricassee
Котлета Cutlet Фуа-гра Foie gras
Котлета отбивная Chop Фугу Fugu
Котлета по-киевски Chicken Kiev Халва Halva, halavah
Котлета рубленая Rissole Хинкали Khinkali
Кулебяка Kulebyaka, coulibiac Холодец Jellied minced meat
Кулич Easter cake Хот-дог Hot dog
Кутья Boiled rice with raisins and honey Хреновина Spicy radish sauce
Лабскаус Labskaus Чебурек Cheburek
Лагман Lagman Чизбургер Cheeseburger
Лазанья Lasagna Чизкейк Cheesecake
Лапша Noodles Чипсы (Potato) chips
Лечо Lecho Шаурма Gyro
Люля-кебаб Minced mutton chop Шашлык Shish kebab
Макароны Macaroni Шницель Schnitzel
Манты (Oriental) dumplings Шурпа Chorba
Мимоза Mimosa salad Щи Cabbage soup
Мюсли Muesli Эскалоп Escalope
Окрошка Okroshka Яичница Fried eggs (глазунья); scrambled eggs (болтунья)
ОладьяThick pancakeЯкиториYakitori
ОливьеSalade OlivierГорчицаMustard
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What Size?

A guy goes into a drugstore to buy condoms.

"What size?" asks the clerk?

"Gee, I don't know."

"Go see Sophie in aisle 4." He goes over to see Sophie, who grabs him i  

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Более 1000 наиболее распространенных устойчивых выражений и идиом в английском языке

Ниже приведен список из 1157 наиболее устойчивых выражений и идиом в английском языке. Знание выражений из этого списка значительно облегчают перевод текстов. Данный список является полезным инструментом для более производительного обучения языку.

Список был составлен для студентов 3-го уровня программы Broad Sky Alternative Language Academy. Этот перечень никоим образом не следует рассматривать как полный список идиом и устойчивых выражений, тем не менее, он является базовым и вспомогательным инструментом, который облегчает работу с языком. Нужно иметь ввиду, что выражения для некоторых американских идиом, в отличие от британских, могут быть переведены несколько в ином смысле, но общая мысль будет одна.

При работе со списком нужно иметь ввиду, что для большинства фраз есть несколько способов сказать то же самое другими словами. Как известно, предлоги играют в английском языке исключительно важную роль, в связи с тем, что в английском языке почти отсутствуют падежные окончания. Предлоги выражают отношение существительного (или местоимения) к другим словам в предложении. Предлоги выражают разнообразные отношения – пространственные, временные, причинные и др. В русском языке эти отношения выражаются не одними предлогами, а предлогами и падежными окончаниями, в английском же языке эти отношения выражаются только предлогами, поскольку существительные в общем падеже, с которыми они сочетаются не имеют специальных окончаний.

Итак, без дальнейших церемоний, мы просим начать использовать этот список в вашей работе и учебе. Мы (Broad Sky Alternative Language Academy) гарантируем, что если вы знаете более трети выражений из этого списка - ваш английский находится на третьем уровне (по градации школы BSALA, прим. Learnenglishbest). Безусловно, это высокий результат и вы имеете большое и глубокое понимание английского языка.

  1. during the day
  2. at night
  3. in the meantime
  4. in the next few…+NOUN
  5. for the time being
  6. a remote chance
  7. It’s not likely that…
  8. to quit a job…
  9. to remember to+INF
  10. to forget to+INF
  11. for the most part
  12. many years ago
  13. It’s been a long time since…
  14. In my opinion…
  15. Under/given the circumstances…
  16. I’m taken aback that…
  17. To get the bill
  18. To take responsibility for…
  19. At full speed
  20. To take one’s time + gerund
  21. To get/be accustomed/used to…
  22. For the sake of…
  23. In order to…
  24. To hurry up and…
  25. To speed up
  26. To slow down
  27. To have money saved up
  28. To be bored out of one’s mind
  29. Out in the open
  30. In secret
  31. To be sure/certain of…
  32. Wide open
  33. Shut tight
  34. The fact that…
  35. To say the least
  36. Watch out (for)!
  37. To be in trouble (with smb.)
  38. Sorry to bother/trouble you, but…
  39. Would you mind if…?
  40. To go wrong
  41. Go away!
  42. Let’s get going
  43. To be short/missing a…
  44. Something is missing (from)
  45. To be mistaken about…
  46. In the middle of the night
  47. Let’s check it out
  48. To make sure that…
  49. To be taken by surprise
  50. To strongly disagree
  51. To decide between (2 choices)
  52. To make up one’s mind (about)
  53. To have plans (for)
  54. It isn’t worth it!
  55. It’s not worth the trouble (of/to+gerund)
  56. To take part in smth.
  57. To have trouble+gerund
  58. On the way to…
  59. To have time for smth.
  60. For free
  61. To my amazement…
  62. To keep in mind that…
  63. To relate to/with smb.
  64. To keep smth.+adj.
  65. To have a hunch that…
  66. I can’t help (doing it)
  67. To keep sthg up to date
  68. To have feelings for
  69. To keep smb. Informed (of smth.)
  70. To keep under control
  71. To keep track of…
  72. For just a+time word
  73. To show up for…
  74. To show up early/late
  75. To have a knack for…
  76. To be partial to…
  77. To do away with…
  78. For example
  79. To go over smtg (fig)
  80. To manage to…
  81. To take note of…
  82. To take notice of…
  83. To make up for smth.
  84. To put stock in…
  85. To save up (for)
  86. At the time, I…
  87. (that was)back when…
  88. Back then,…
  89. For the record,…
  90. For as long as I can remember,…
  91. To lose sleep over…
  92. For what it’s worth,…
  93. Oh, come on!
  94. I’m just kidding!
  95. To be right/wrong about
  96. Tit for tat/an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth
  97. To have a strong need for…
  98. To be nervous about…
  99. To be jealous of…
  100. To be in doubt of…
  101. If I were you, I…
  102. If I were in your shoes, I…
  103. It bothers me that…
  104. To no end
  105. To get involved with…
  106. To meddle in smb’s business/affairs
  107. Something else
  108. Somewhere else
  109. Someone else
  110. Something more
  111. To be a good deal ($)
  112. A good deal of...(part.)
  113. To be a good idea
  114. To be disgusted with/by…
  115. To be interested in…
  116. Enough+noun
  117. Enough of+(part.)
  118. Adj+enough
  119. To worry about smth.
  120. To be concerned with…
  121. To take smth into consideration
  122. To withhold information
  123. To reach an understanding (of)
  124. To reach/come to an agreement
  125. To come to the conclusion that…
  126. To strike a compromise
  127. To make friends with…
  128. To stand for…
  129. To stand up against…
  130. Once in a while
  131. To start to+gerund
  132. To stop quit+gerund
  133. To be good for+gerund
  134. To be qualified to...
  135. To go well with…
  136. To snack on smth.
  137. To get ready for…
  138. With all one’s might
  139. To lose track of…
  140. To be afraid of…
  141. Out of+emotion
  142. To have a taste for…
  143. Lack of…+NOUN
  144. Tendency for/towards/to
  145. To sort out…
  146. Behind smb’s back
  147. Without warning
  148. For fun
  149. To look up to smb.
  150. To look down on smb.
  151. To frown upon smth.
  152. To turn on
  153. To turn off
  154. To get away with smth.
  155. In all honesty,…
  156. To tell the truth
  157. To tell a lie
  158. To brag about…
  159. To talk trash about smb.
  160. To help out with smth.
  161. To give comfort to
  162. To mistake smth/sby for
  163. Concrete details
  164. To be uncomfortable with smth.
  165. To hint at smth.
  166. To be annoyed by smth.
  167. To save the best for last
  168. First of all…
  169. In the future
  170. In the past
  171. Right now
  172. The past few+time word
  173. To change one’s mind
  174. To switch+NOUN+with smb.
  175. To advise against smth.
  176. To give good/bad advice
  177. A detailed explanation
  178. I bet that…
  179. The kind of thing that…
  180. As an example of…
  181. An (un)biased opinion about…
  182. A beautiful view (of)
  183. To turn/hand in...
  184. Current events
  185. It all happened so suddenly…
  186. To bring about…
  187. To catch up with…
  188. To ask for help
  189. To make a sound
  190. To be located in/at/etc
  191. A change of+NOUN
  192. To find out about…
  193. To leave for+NOUN
  194. In memory of…
  195. Before long
  196. To get ripped off (by)
  197. To go for a ride
  198. To go for a walk
  199. Why don’t we…
  200. To get ahead (fig)
  201. To get ahead of one’s self (fig)
  202. To be running ahead/behind (at)
  203. I used to…+INF
  204. To fall apart
  205. To fall off
  206. In denial
  207. To get a second chance
  208. To hold one’s breath
  209. One more time/once more
  210. To beg for
  211. It goes without saying that…
  212. Out of breath
  213. You’re gonna make it
  214. Rest assured that…
  215. To get hold of smth.
  216. To do one’s duty
  217. In pain
  218. To lead astray
  219. To have a head/stomach ache
  220. Spare change
  221. Pocket money
  222. To take a break/rest
  223. Time to kill
  224. To look like+NOUN
  225. In mint condition
  226. In good/bad condition
  227. In power
  228. To rise to power
  229. To get a raise ($)
  230. The sun comes up/goes down
  231. To have/get a flat tire
  232. To break up with smb.
  233. To take off (clothing)
  234. To put on
  235. Down on one’s luck
  236. To wake up
  237. To fall asleep
  238. To have no idea about
  239. To talk smb out of smth.
  240. It makes (no) sense
  241. To say goodbye
  242. The right/wrong way
  243. It’s for the best that…
  244. Some day
  245. To be enough/not enough
  246. Here’s to…(toast)
  247. To leave behind
  248. You had better
  249. To pack one’s bags
  250. To take forever (at)
  251. It seems like…
  252. To take notes
  253. To come for a visit
  254. To take pictures
  255. To make music
  256. First things first…
  257. To run into smth.
  258. To give in (to)
  259. To have a hangover
  260. Under one’s breath
  261. To smell like+NOUN
  262. To scream/yell at smb.
  263. Every minute/moment
  264. Every day/week/month
  265. Once/twice per+TIME
  266. Right before one’s eyes
  267. To act as if…
  268. To be happy/pleased with/about…
  269. Otherwise,…
  270. Off-road
  271. To get/turn off (of)
  272. To be related to…
  273. To have a good memory
  274. A sense of…
  275. Hard/easy to find
  276. In jail/in prison
  277. To make progress (with)
  278. To get lost
  279. No more/anymore
  280. To slip and fall (on)
  281. To work on
  282. To find one’s way
  283. On the weekend
  284. To have/take a sick day
  285. No time for…
  286. In/out of touch with…
  287. To lose control of…
  288. Out of reach
  289. Within reach
  290. To spend the+TIME(+doing smth.)
  291. To be in luck
  292. A table for#
  293. To take it easy
  294. To feel wronged
  295. To come/stop by (at)
  296. To pass through (smwr.)
  297. A friend of mine/his/etc
  298. One of my…
  299. A little
  300. A lot
  301. In pieces
  302. On the mend
  303. To return the favor
  304. To do a favor for
  305. Within range
  306. Out of the area
  307. Small town
  308. Big city
  309. To run up (a bill/tab)
  310. To get over+NOUN
  311. Few and far between
  312. To look into smth. (fig)
  313. To feel sorry for…
  314. To pretend to+INF
  315. To let go of smth. (lit/fig)
  316. To feel sorry for…
  317. To have fun+gerund
  318. To have a good/bad time
  319. Good night!
  320. To wish someone well
  321. To set free
  322. Let go!
  323. Call me+adj. (e.g. crazy)
  324. Scared to death
  325. To go crazy
  326. To have a problem with…
  327. To take turns (at)or(+gerund)
  328. The rest of…
  329. To go for a hike
  330. All night long
  331. To try to+INF
  332. To be confused about
  333. There’s a chance that…
  334. This is between (you and me)/(him and her)
  335. How come…
  336. To make a fuss over…
  337. To know about
  338. To know how to…
  339. By any means necessary
  340. In debt/indebted to
  341. A pile of…
  342. To make good money
  343. All over/around town
  344. Out of town
  345. To take smth. Seriously
  346. At face value
  347. By law
  348. According to…
  349. To put up with smth.
  350. To deal with
  351. To make clear
  352. In bed
  353. At the table
  354. To trust in smb.
  355. Topic of conversation
  356. To have faith in…
  357. To take effect
  358. To sign up for…
  359. In connection with
  360. To come across as…
  361. To get a point across
  362. To be ignorant of…
  363. In the aftermath of…
  364. For no reason
  365. To crash into…
  366. To get into an accident
  367. In an emergency
  368. To have/get the feeling that…
  369. To have the courage to…
  370. To go on a date (with)
  371. A wide variety of…
  372. To be married engaged to
  373. It’s common sense
  374. To keep a secret
  375. To be in conflict with…
  376. Compared to/with…
  377. To stop for…
  378. On the side of the road
  379. To feel threatened (by)
  380. To score a goal (sports)
  381. To apply for a job
  382. Really?
  383. Out for lunch/dinner
  384. To fall in love with…
  385. In alphabetical order
  386. To fail at+gerund
  387. It sounds good/bad
  388. A turn for the worse
  389. To make a difference(in)
  390. To finish+gerund
  391. To succeed at…
  392. To be kicked out of…
  393. To be good/bad at…
  394. To be based on…
  395. To refrain from…
  396. In the way of…
  397. To be ashamed of…
  398. To be embarrassed by…
  399. In/out of fashion/style
  400. To take over+NOUN
  401. In that case,…
  402. In the event that…
  403. A long way to go
  404. To sing to smb.
  405. To think about
  406. Not quite as+adj.+as…
  407. In silence
  408. In compliance with…
  409. To take care of…
  410. To be impressed with/by
  411. To take advantage of…
  412. On a diet
  413. To be homesick
  414. Frozen/fresh food
  415. On ice
  416. On tap
  417. To hope for…
  418. To give credit to…
  419. To disobey orders
  420. As usual
  421. To allow smb. To
  422. To put/place emphasis on…
  423. For dinner/for breakfast
  424. The cause for
  425. A strange turn of events
  426. To make known that…
  427. To work as a team
  428. To insist on+gerund
  429. Plenty of…
  430. At midnight
  431. At noon
  432. To be close/nearby
  433. To offer a solution
  434. To travel the world
  435. To check for…
  436. That’s what I thought
  437. To be cut off (from)
  438. To be prejudiced toward
  439. In favor of…
  440. More or less
  441. Too much+NOUN
  442. With care
  443. I guess/suppose that…
  444. Up to…#amount(time, $, etc)
  445. It’s up to you
  446. When it comes to,…
  447. To show weakness/strength
  448. To give credit to…
  449. To take credit for…
  450. To be aware of…
  451. To drive smb crazy
  452. Under stress
  453. It doesn’t matter that…
  454. To take offense (at)
  455. To have the courage to…
  456. To come to the rescue of smb.
  457. On purpose
  458. To do the right/wrong thing
  459. To make a decision
  460. To see what happens
  461. To talk at great length about
  462. To raise/lower taxes/prices/etc.
  463. To pay attention to…
  464. For the benefit of…
  465. In the short/long term
  466. In harm’s way
  467. As a matter of fact
  468. In demand
  469. A shortage of…
  470. To take the blame for…
  471. To suffer the consequences for…
  472. To be attracted to…
  473. The whole story/picture
  474. To be drawn toward/to
  475. To give someone the benefit of the doubt
  476. To be of assistance (to)
  477. With the exception of…
  478. To take place
  479. To take sides (with)
  480. For profit
  481. To give smth a try
  482. You don’t get it…
  483. To go blind
  484. To turn a blind eye to…
  485. To the best of my knowledge,…
  486. To a certain degree/extent
  487. To go bankrupt
  488. Without a doubt
  489. To believe in smth.
  490. To focus on smth.
  491. To be crazy about smth.
  492. To handle smth well/badly (emotional)
  493. In a bind
  494. To put into question
  495. To get dressed
  496. To put on
  497. To take off
  498. Paralyzed with fear
  499. For the good of…
  500. For the greater good
  501. It will do you some good (to)
  502. To be in a rage
  503. To get worked up (about)
  504. To confused smth with smth else
  505. To trip over smth.
  506. In/out of line (with)
  507. Sense of decency
  508. Right to privacy
  509. Under attack
  510. To take inventory (of)
  511. To make a list (of)
  512. To be charged with
  513. To be (found) guilty (of)
  514. To put in jail/prison
  515. To be in charge (of)
  516. To take charge (of)
  517. To sentence smb to…
  518. Life in prison
  519. The death penalty
  520. To be acquitted (of)
  521. To face facts
  522. To be ignorant of...
  523. The reality (of the situation) is…
  524. What about…?
  525. Who is to blame (for)?
  526. At fault (for)
  527. At risk (of)
  528. To look out over…
  529. To dream of/about…
  530. To sympathize with…
  531. To take a liking to…
  532. To have a (firm) grasp of…
  533. Never again
  534. To take it easy
  535. To take it slow
  536. Once again,…
  537. For lack of better words,…
  538. To play along with…
  539. To show one’s true colors…
  540. …,at best,…
  541. (to put) on the air (radio)
  542. to settle a/the matter
  543. once and for all
  544. to decline an invitation
  545. to accept an invitation
  546. to refuse to+gerund
  547. to live up to smth.
  548. To make smth better/worse
  549. To leave smth alone
  550. Drop it! (lit&fig)
  551. The damage is done
  552. To be in/out of luck
  553. Fame and fortune
  554. To have high/low expectations (for)
  555. Regarding X matter,…
    to put a dent in smth.
  556. to barely/hardly be able to do smth.
  557. To nearly/almost do something
  558. To carry smth out
  559. To put into action
  560. In effect
  561. To draw attention to…
  562. To admit defeat
  563. To save/lose face
  564. To keep in touch with smb.
  565. To be out of touch with reality
  566. Qualities in+NOUN
  567. (To use an) approach to…
  568. To fill in the blank(s)
  569. To fill up the tank
  570. To run on empty
  571. Because of+NOUN
  572. To have an eye/ear for smth.
  573. To take a shot at smth.
  574. Without regard for…
  575. Difference of opinion
  576. Conflict of interests
  577. To be attentive to details
  578. For sale
  579. For rent
  580. In/out of use
  581. To feel inferior to…
  582. At the moment,…
  583. Living situation
  584. At war with
  585. What to…+INF
  586. In/out of focus
  587. In need of…
  588. The ability to…
  589. To move on (from)
  590. It’s a matter of+NOUN
  591. In/out of shape
  592. To stay in shape
  593. To be accepted to/at
  594. To resist temptation
  595. Sometimes I wonder,…
  596. To live in fear of…
  597. There’s no reason that…
  598. To assert authority
  599. To have authority over…
  600. It’s not a big deal if…
  601. Full-time job
  602. Part-time job
  603. To interview for a job
  604. To be represented by
  605. To be a symbol of…
  606. To compare smth with
  607. To agree on an issue
  608. To go on a trip
  609. To see the best in…
  610. To give in to (pressure)
  611. Under pressure
  612. For the rest of the+TIME
  613. To go abroad
  614. A change of plans
  615. In the military
  616. In a good/bad mood
  617. To work for+NOUN
  618. To get inspiration from…
  619. To make a recording (of)
  620. To end up+gerund
  621. To wish/hope for…
  622. To push for smth.
  623. To face adversity
  624. Hearing loss
  625. To make smth official
  626. Proportionate to…
  627. To escape unharmed
  628. To get away from…
  629. Over my dead body!
  630. To have good standing (in)
  631. To get a loan (from)
  632. By the time…
  633. To keep a secret
  634. To test one’s luck
  635. To be available for
  636. On guard for…
  637. At least
  638. At the spur of the moment
  639. On the spot
  640. Disregard for…
  641. Take-out food
  642. To work through a problem
  643. Up for grabs
  644. On a (adj.) basis
  645. Only on the condition that…
  646. To put effort into smth.
  647. a+NOUN+like that
  648. Not only,…but also…
  649. On its own merit
  650. Out with the old, in with the new
  651. To be compensated for
  652. To spend the night (at)
  653. To stay with smb.
  654. To be such a...
  655. To make smth a priority
  656. To give a speech (about)
  657. To have an impact (on)
  658. To render smb. speechless
  659. A shining example of...
  660. To meet in the middle (fig.)
  661. Set in one’s ways
  662. To right a wrong
  663. To get even with smb.
  664. One thing left to do
  665. Out of+NOUN (lack)
  666. To refresh one’s memory
  667. To turn up/down the volume
  668. A wide variety of…
  669. You don’t belong here!
  670. To bring back to life
  671. At a high/low point
  672. On one’s own
  673. For personal gain
  674. To come to the surface
  675. For life
  676. For good (final)
  677. Banned+NOUN
  678. To starve to death
  679. Dying of thirst
  680. To take an exam
  681. To pass a/the test
  682. To stay in school
  683. Per hour
  684. Per day
  685. By the week
  686. By the month
  687. To vanish without a trace
  688. To be prone to…
  689. Too ADJ+for one’s own good
  690. To see the point in…
  691. The point of smth.
  692. A firm believer in…
  693. To set a good example
  694. To set smth in stone
  695. A change of heart
  696. To get a foot one’s foot in the door (fig.)
  697. To feel dizzy
  698. To feel drowsy
  699. At sea
  700. On land
  701. To get sea-sick
  702. Up in the air
  703. To have second thoughts about smth.
  704. To breathe a sigh of relief (about)
  705. To gasp for air
  706. To take the lead (in)
  707. To lead smb on
  708. To not know any better
  709. Right now
  710. Just a minute ago
  711. …as hard as one can…
  712. to enjoy+GERUND
  713. On vacation
  714. To be busy doing smth.
  715. It’s up to you…
  716. To drive over/under the speed limit
  717. To get pulled over by the police
  718. To get arrested (by)
  719. To not have a penny to one’s name
  720. To stay awake
  721. To stay up late
  722. To get up early
  723. On time
  724. To hold the door (for)
  725. In anticipation of…
  726. What do you make of this?
  727. One of life’s lessons
  728. One step at a time
  729. All at once
  730. Little by little
  731. At a glance
  732. At first glance
  733. To make excuses (for)
  734. To show respect (for)
  735. In the mail
  736. To put to the side
  737. On the side
  738. To have good/bad manners
  739. To mind one’s own business (about)
  740. A preconceived notion (about)
  741. …before it’s too late…
  742. to see/recognize a pattern/trend
  743. to be in chaos
  744. to bring order to…
  745. to trouble smb. for smth.
  746. To agree to do smth.
  747. To go back on one’s word (about)
  748. To turn someone in (THE LAW)
  749. Law and order
  750. To keep the peace
  751. To become obvious that…
  752. To wish smth. on smb.
  753. To have legal troubles
  754. To be held responsible (for)
  755. To be a big fan (of)
  756. To convince smb of…
  757. In the streets
  758. Out in the cold
  759. In the sun
  760. In the shade
  761. In the snow
  762. What is going on?
  763. In traffic/in a traffic jam
  764. To get a ride to…(work)
  765. Who knows?
  766. To get on/off (pub trans)
  767. To take time off (work)
  768. Leave of absence
  769. On call
  770. To tie one’s shoes
  771. All the way to…
  772. The whole time...
  773. To be missing
  774. An attempt at+gerund
  775. Figure of speech
  776. To take pride in…
  777. To be proud of…
  778. To manage to do smth.
  779. A good night’s sleep
  780. A night of drinking
  781. To be up all night
  782. A hard day’s work
  783. To find out for one’s self (about)
  784. To find out that…
  785. To be far along (with)
  786. A bundle of…
  787. To sympathize with
  788. To go shopping (for)
  789. To go hunting (for)
  790. To go fishing (for)
  791. to need a break (from)
  792. I can’t tell if/whether…
  793. To be obsessed with…
  794. The idea/notion that…
  795. To show one’s appreciation (for)
  796. To be skilled at/in…
  797. To be trained for/at…
  798. To be thankful for…
  799. To be obedient to (authority)
  800. To be confused about…
  801. To be out of breath
  802. To condemn smb for…
  803. To say harsh words to…
  804. To bite the bullet and…
  805. A snide remark
  806. To increase productivity
  807. An unlikely scenario
  808. To have free time
  809. To surrender to smth.
  810. In memory of…
  811. To be getting late
  812. To be getting cold
  813. To warm up
  814. To cool down/off
  815. To be freezing
  816. To have hard feelings about smth.
  817. To breed contempt
  818. To have contempt for…
  819. All things considered
  820. To be better off+gerund
  821. To commit a crime
  822. To swear an oath (to)
  823. To keep/break a promise
  824. A means to do smth.
  825. To come up with the money (for)
  826. to feel like doing smth.
  827. A misguided effort (to)
  828. To keep a clean house
  829. To be brutally honest
  830. To hurt smb’s feelings
  831. Apology accepted!
  832. To drag one’s feet (fig)
  833. Out and about
  834. Never mind!
  835. To complain about smth.
  836. At odds with smb.
  837. To beat the odds
  838. On the coast
  839. To go through customs
  840. To make drama (about)
  841. A healthy environment
  842. To protect the environment
  843. To calm down (about)
  844. To consider every possibility
  845. To calm one’s nerves
  846. To be satisfied with…
  847. To conduct an interview
  848. To take smth for granted
  849. To be amused by smth.
  850. …to no end…
  851. Back and forth
  852. To no end
  853. To let smth happen
  854. To get over smth.
  855. To stand in the way of progress
  856. Work in progress
  857. In the process of…
  858. In the middle of…
  859. To remind smb of smth.
  860. A particular place and time
  861. To come to the aid/assistance of
  862. To come to the rescue
  863. To refresh one’s memory
  864. A lack of common sense
  865. Due to…
  866. To make a good/bad impression on smb.
  867. Compared to/in comparison with…
  868. To have an advantage over smb.
  869. A first impression of…
  870. To have power over…
  871. In public
  872. To get in the way (of)
  873. To take shots (alcohol)
  874. To be certain of smth.
  875. To admit fault
  876. To have a fight (with)
  877. To hold smth against smb.
  878. To treat smb/smth like…
  879. To be different from…
  880. Thanks to…
  881. Because of…
  882. To take a nap…
  883. On top of…
  884. to wait in line (for)
  885. over and over (again)
  886. It’s a tie!
  887. To have the right of way
  888. On the fence (fig)
  889. In search/pursuit of…
  890. In the past
  891. In the present day and age
  892. To prove a point
  893. To prove one’s worth
  894. It’s a case of…
  895. The right amount
  896. It is beyond all understanding why…
  897. Full of…
  898. Just in time for…
  899. To pick smb up (from)
  900. To hand in (home)work
  901. To hand smth out
  902. To do chores
  903. To shoot at smb/smth.
  904. To be in a hurry
  905. To yell/scream at smb.
  906. Out loud
  907. To let out a noise (sigh/laugh/scream/etc)
  908. To knock on a door
  909. To keep smth/smb in mind
  910. A waste of time
  911. To know how to+INF
  912. To spy on smb.
  913. To shed light on smth. (fig.)
  914. How often…?
  915. To demand restitution
  916. In court
  917. On trial
  918. To lower one’s standards
  919. A sip of…
  920. A bite of…
  921. To repair damage
  922. A giant+NOUN
  923. To be critical of…
  924. To go to bed
  925. To get up in the morning
  926. The answer to (a question)
  927. To promise to+INF
  928. On display
  929. The meaning of smth.
  930. To be mean to smb.
  931. To treat smb with kindness/cruelty
  932. To give an explanation (of)
  933. To owe smb a favor
  934. To lock one’s self out (of)
  935. For the love of
  936. To go in the direction of
  937. It’s your turn!
  938. To get rid of smth.
  939. To deprive smb of smth.
  940. To beg for forgiveness
  941. To keep quiet
  942. To be upset about smth.
  943. To play in a band
  944. The/an opportunity to…
  945. To interact with…
  946. To inform smb about…
  947. To be allowed to+INF
  948. To be eager to+INF
  949. To eagerly await smth.
  950. To do nothing but…
  951. To have good/bad social skills
  952. To be knowledgeable about…
  953. To be skilled at…
  954. To take smb hostage
  955. A day off work
  956. To sign up for smth.
  957. To make fun of smth.
  958. To run out of time
  959. Time is running out
  960. To be available for…
  961. To make comments about
  962. In/out of context
  963. To make up for lost time
  964. It’s nice to….for a change…
  965. A change of scenery
  966. To lose one’s train of thought
  967. The majority of…
  968. To make up for lost time
  969. To have good/bad intentions
  970. To culminate in+NOUN
  971. To have (no) patience for
  972. To suffer from
  973. To kick/punch smb in the…(body part)
  974. To drop smb off at…
  975. In the wild
  976. Instead of+gerund
  977. To apologize for…
  978. For the duration of…
  979. To talk on the phone (with smb.)
  980. To be angry with smb.
  981. In good/bad taste
  982. To have good taste (in)
  983. To say smth without thinking
  984. …without giving a thought to…
  985. To think smth through
  986. To react to smth/smb.
  987. On one’s knees
  988. On foot
  989. In good/bad health
  990. To go barefoot
  991. A sense of decency
  992. It is a sign that…
  993. To be opposed to…
  994. Back then,…
  995. In a nutshell,…
  996. To lay down one’s life (for)
  997. To be plagued by guilt
  998. To be a metaphor for…
  999. To climb trees
  1000. To climb up a (specific) tree
  1001. Land/sea/forest-dwelling animal
  1002. To jump off a building/bridge
  1003. To go to a meeting
  1004. In a war zone
  1005. The height of smth.
  1006. The width of smth.
  1007. The length of smth.
  1008. X+measurement+high/
  1009. wide/long
  1010. At the height of+NOUN (an empire/an age/etc)
  1011. What color is…?
  1012. As punishment
  1013. To spend money on…
  1014. To have the potential to/for…
  1015. To wreak havoc on…
  1016. To come up with/devise a plan
  1017. To lift weights
  1018. To share smth with smb.
  1019. At all/not at all
  1020. To suffer the consequences (for)
  1021. Of X heritage (e.g. Scottish)
  1022. To be honest with one’s self
  1023. To step outside for some fresh air
  1024. To follow one’s instincts
  1025. To devote one’s self to…
  1026. To step aside
  1027. To dampen smb’s spirits
  1028. To make a/the prediction that…
  1029. To spend one’s life doing smth.
  1030. On the verge of+gerund
  1031. The thing is,…
  1032. It depends on…
  1033. To look forward to…
  1034. At the thought of…
  1035. To pride one’s self in/on…
  1036. To lose consciousness
  1037. To knock smb unconscious
  1038. To lead a (ADJ) life
  1039. To flip a coin (for)
  1040. To roll the dice (for)
  1041. To proceed with caution
  1042. A stack/pile of…
  1043. A deck of cards
  1044. To play cards
  1045. At will
  1046. At random
  1047. On command
  1048. At a loss
  1049. In a state of…
  1050. In crisis
  1051. To perform surgery
  1052. To perform a play
  1053. A work of art
  1054. To go on a rampage
  1055. To throw a party
  1056. To throw a temper tantrum
  1057. I welcome the opportunity to…
  1058. To accept a/the challenge
  1059. A set of…
  1060. To play pool
  1061. To play chess
  1062. To play darts
  1063. To play X-ball
  1064. To swim laps (in pool)
  1065. A jack of all trades
  1066. By profession
  1067. To lend one’s support to
  1068. To plan on+gerund
  1069. To smell like…
  1070. From now on,…
  1071. To get straight to the point (of)
  1072. To lose focus (of)
  1073. The main idea (of)
  1074. To recommend smth to smb.
  1075. To keep on schedule
  1076. To gain/lose weight
  1077. To have a preference for
  1078. I would rather….
  1079. To dress up as…
  1080. To win a prize
  1081. To get exercise
  1082. To make a connection between
  1083. To mix 2 things together
  1084. Of special interest (to)
  1085. To bring smth to a boil
  1086. To have an air of+QUALITY
  1087. A wad/clump of…
  1088. Resulting in+EFFECT
  1089. To set sail (on)
  1090. The high seas
  1091. To force smb to+INF
  1092. To be suspected of+gerund
  1093. To catch smb off guard (at/while)
  1094. In hindsight
  1095. Well-disciplined
  1096. To have no discipline
  1097. In slow motion
  1098. To be kicked out of/expelled from…
  1099. To get fired (from)
  1100. To be open/closed-minded
  1101. To be disappointed by…
  1102. To take smth at face value
  1103. From what I can tell,…
  1104. To be caught in a vicious circle
  1105. To pollute the environment
  1106. To contribute to smth.
  1107. What kind of…is X?
  1108. In/out of tune
  1109. To sing off key
  1110. To apply for a job
  1111. A positive/negative environment
  1112. To be considerate/act considerately toward…
  1113. To care about smth.
  1114. The way of the world
  1115. To play an instrument
  1116. To strum on…
  1117. To have talent (for)
  1118. To be mindful of…
  1119. To make a transition to…
  1120. To invite smb to…
  1121. To get a flat tire
  1122. To have a spare/extra+NOUN
  1123. To step on the accelerator/gas
  1124. To step on the brakes
  1125. To fall victim to…
  1126. To watch a movie
  1127. To look after (children)
  1128. To mow the lawn/grass
  1129. To set smth apart from smth else
  1130. To find a replacement for…
  1131. To stand in for smb.
  1132. To have down-time
  1133. To pass out while/in the middle of…
  1134. To stay awake for smth
  1135. To have unintended consequences
  1136. In advance (of)
  1137. Over time,…
  1138. In/with regards to smth.
  1139. To reduce smth to smth.
  1140. To turn smth into smth (else)
  1141. To hold on to…
  1142. To receive preferential treatment (for)
  1143. That’s (not) my first choice
  1144. Lend me your ear!
  1145. It will only take a moment/minute/second
  1146. In the scheme of things,…
  1147. To scheme/plot to do smth.
  1148. To keep smth as a pet
  1149. To prevent fires
  1150. To put out a fire
  1151. To keep/prevent smth from happening (to)
  1152. To happen to smb.
  1153. The moral of the story is…
  1154. To make/lose a bet
  1155. To declare war
  1156. To go to church
  1157. To go to war
Смотреть далее | 06.02.2017 | Отправить ссылку друзьям

Текст и перевод песни Imagine - Представь себе [ John Lennon ]

Текст и перевод песни Imagine - Представь себе. В исполнении John Lennon [ видео внизу ]

Imagine

Представь себе

Imagine there's no heaven,
It's easy if you try,
No hell below us,
Above us only sky.
Imagine all the people
Living for today

Imagine there's no countries,
It isn't hard to do
Nothing to kill or die for
And no religion too
Imagine all the people
Living life in peace

You may say I'm a dreamer,
But I'm not the only one
I hope some day you'll join us
And the world will be as one

Imagine no possessions,
I wonder if you can,
No need for greed or hunger
A brotherhood of man
Imagine all the people
Sharing all the world

You may say I'm a dreamer,
But I'm not the only one
I hope some day you'll join us
And the world will live as one

Представь, что нет рая,
Попробуй, это просто,
Под нами нету ада,
Над нами только небо.
Представь, что все люди
Живут одним днем

Представь, что нет стран,
Это не трудно представить,
Нет смысла убивать или умирать за кого-то,
Религий не существует тоже.
Представь, что все люди
Живут в мире

Скажешь, что я лишь мечтатель,
Но мои слова не пусты.
Надеюсь, однажды ты присоединишься к нам
И мир станет единым целым

Ни у кого никакого имущества,
Можешь это представить?
Ни скупости, ни голода,
Все люди в одном братстве.
Представь, что все люди
Равны по всему миру

Скажешь, что я лишь мечтатель,
Но мои слова не пусты.
Надеюсь, однажды ты присоединишься к нам
И мир станет единым целым

Imagine — песня Джона Леннона (1940 - 1980) из одноимённого альбома «Imagine», в которой Леннон изложил свои взгляды на то, каким должен быть мир. Год выпуска 1971. По версии журнала Rolling Stone в списке 500 величайших песен всех времён «Imagine» занимает почетное третье место. В 2010 году американское музыкальное издание «Performing Songwriter» признало «Imagine» «лучшей композицией всех времен и народов».

Смотреть далее | 02.02.2017 | Отправить ссылку друзьям

Bad Weather

A guy goes fishing every Saturday morning. He gets up early and eager, makes his lunch, hooks up his boat and off he goes, all day long.

Well, one Saturday morning he gets up early,  

Смотреть далее | 02.02.2017 | Отправить ссылку друзьям

33 ways to speak better English – without taking classes

33 ways to speak better English – without taking classes

If you’re reading this, I imagine you want to communicate with confidence and competence in English.

When we communicate effectively we are able to express our ideas and opinions, share experiences, and build relationships with others. When we struggle to express ourselves, we feel unvalued and insecure. As human beings, we want to participate in group discussions and have an impact on the society around us.

33 ways to speak better English In the modern world, we communicate across borders. English is the closest thing we have to an international language.

By speaking better English, people all over the world can hear our voice. But, to speak better English, you need a teacher, don’t you? You need to take English classes, right?

Well, English teachers and English classes definitely help. But, studying English for a few hours a week may not improve your spoken English very much.

What you need is to become a self-directed learner, somebody who takes responsibility for their own learning and creates their own learning programme to develop their English.

Now, it’s certainly true that speaking is a social activity and is best done with other people. However, you could say the same about many activities. Leo Messi became a wonderful football player because he spent hours every day for many years practising by himself.

You can do the same with your English. Here are 33 ways to speak better English, without going to classes.

  1. Record yourself speaking English. Listening to yourself can be strange at first but you get used to it. Listen to a recording of a fluent English speaker (a short audio file) and then record yourself repeating what they said. Compare the difference and try again. Humans are natural mimics so you will find yourself getting better and better. Soundcloud is an excellent tool for voice recording as you or your teacher can make notes about your errors.
  2. Read aloud, especially dialogue. Reading aloud is not the same as speaking naturally. However, it is very useful for exercising the vocal muscles. Practise for 5 or 10 minutes a day and you will begin to notice which sounds are difficult for you to produce. Find transcripts of natural dialogues, such as these here, and practise acting them with a friend, you will also learn common phrases which we use when speaking.
  3. Sing along to English songs while you’re driving or in the shower. The lyrics to pop songs are often conversational so you can learn lots of common expressions by listening to them. Humans are also able to remember words when used together with music which is why it is difficult to remember poems but easy to remember the words to songs. Here are some songs to get started with.
  4. Watch short video clips and pause and repeat what you hear. YouTube is an amazing resource for language learners and you probably already have your favourite clips. My advice is to watch short clips and really study them. With longer videos, you may find your attention wanders. The key to improving by watching videos is to really listen carefully and use the pause button to focus on sounds and words. Many YouTube videos now have captions.
  5. Learn vowel and consonant sounds in English. The Phonemic chart is a list of the different vowel and consonant sounds in English. Learning how to make these sounds and then using them to pronounce words correctly will really help you speak English clearly. This is a great resource from the British Council.
  6. Learn and identify schwa. What is schwa you might be asking? Well, it’s the most common sound in English. We use it all the time in words like ‘teacher’ and ‘around’.
  7. Learn about weak and strong forms of common words. When you know about the ‘schwa’ sound, you will listen to native speakers in a different way. English is a stress-timed language which means that we use a combination of strong and weak forms of some words. For example, which words do we stress in the following sentence?
    I want to go for a drink tonight.
    How do native speakers pronounce to / for / a in the sentence? We use the schwa sound so it sounds like:
    I wanna go ferra drink tenigh.
    Learn how and when to use weak forms and your speaking will improve overnight. You will also learn to focus on stressed words when listening to fast, native-speaker English and you will finally be able to understand us!
  8. Learn about word stress. When words have more than one syllable, we stress one or more of them. For example, the word intelligent has four syllables but which syllable do we stress? Remember that the small vertical mark above the word identifies the stressed syllable: /ɪnˈtel.ɪ.dʒənt/
  9. Learn about sentence stress. Sentence stress refers to the word or words we stress in a phrase of a sentence. When we stress a word, we help the listener understand what is important. If we stress the wrong word or don’t stress the key word, the listener may get confused or not realise what is important in the sentence. A few years ago, I enrolled in a gym. I was asked to attend an introductory class at ‘five to six‘. The Hungarian receptionist stressed the word ‘six‘ so I arrived at 5.55. She looked at me and told me that I was late and the class had nearly finished. She should have stressed ‘five‘ and ‘six‘ so would have understood that the class lasted for one hour and began at 5pm! For more on sentence stress, read here.
  10. Identify fixed and semi-fixed phrases and practise them. Fixed phrases usually contain between 3 and 7 words and include items like:
    to be honest
    in a moment
    on the other hand
    A conversation is made of grammatical structures, vocabulary and fixed or semi-fixed phrases. In fact, to tell the truth , on the whole, most of the time, my friends and I , communicate with each other in a series of fixed and semi-fixed expressions.
    Learn the communicative function of these phrases and practise how to pronounce them (remember weak forms, which words are stressed) and use them in your everyday conversation.
  11. Learn about collocations. Words don’t like being alone. They prefer to hang out with their friends and, just like people, some words form close friendships and other never speak to each other.
    Yellow doesn’t get on well with hair. Maybe yellow is jealous of blond because blond and hair are frequently seen out together having a great time. Yellow doesn’t understand why hair prefers blond because yellow and blond are so similar.
    Listen carefully for common combinations of words. Short and small have similar meanings but people have short hair not small hair. High and tall are often not so different but people have high hopes but not tall hopes. Foxes are sly not devious. Hours can be happy but are never cheerful. Idiots are stupid but rarely silly.
  12. Replace regular verbs with phrasal verbs. Many learners of English don’t understand why native speakers use so many phrasal verbs where there are normal verbs (usually with Latin roots) which have the same meaning. English was originally a Germanic language which imported lots of Latin vocabulary after the Norman conquest in the 11th century. Regardless of the historical factors, the fact is that native English speakers use lots and lots of phrasal verbs. If you want to understand us, then try to include them in your conversation. If you make a mistake, you’ll probably make us laugh but you are unlikely to confuse us as we can usually guess what you want to say from the context. Phrasal verbs are spatial and originally referred to movement so when you learn a new one, make physical movements while saying them to help you remember.
  13. Learn short automatic responses. Many of our responses are automatic (Right, OK, no problem, alright, fine thanks, just a minute, you’re welcome, fine by me, let’s do it!, yup, no way! you’re joking, right?, Do I have to? etc.) Collect these short automatic responses and start using them.
  14. Practise telling stories and using narrative tenses. Humans are designed to tell stories. We use the past simple, past continuous and past perfect for telling stories but when the listener is hooked (very interested), they feel like they are actually experiencing the story right now. So, we often use present tenses to make our stories more dramatic!
  15. Learn when to pause for effect. Speaking quickly in English does not make you an effective English speaker. Knowing when to pause to give the listener time to think about what you have said, respond appropriately, and predict what you are going to say does. Imagine you’re an actor on a stage, pausing keeps people interested. Great strategy if you need to speak English in public.
  16. Learn about typical pronunciation problems in your first language. Japanese learners find it difficult to identify and produce ‘r‘ and ‘l‘ sounds; Spanish don’t distinguish between ‘b‘ and ‘v‘; Germans often use a ‘v‘ sound when they should use a ‘w‘. Find out about the problems people who speak your first language have when speaking English and you will know what you need to focus on.
  17. Learn about chunking. Chunking means joining words together to make meaningful units. You don’t need to analyse every word to use a phrase. Look at the phrase: Nice to meet you. It’s a short phrase (4 words) which can be remembered as a single item. It is also an example of ellipsis (leaving words out) because the words ‘It’ and ‘is’ are missing at the beginning of the phrase. However, we don’t need to include them. Learn more here.
  18. Choose an accent you like and imitate it. We often have an emotional connection with certain nationalities. Do you have more of an interest in British culture or American culture? Do you support Manchester United or Arsenal? Deciding what variety of English you want to learn is your first step.
  19. Find an actor/actress you like and identify what makes them powerful speakers. Do you want to sound like Barack Obama, Benedict Cumberbatch (Sherlock Homes) Beyonce or Steve Jobs? If you want to sound like David Beckham, I advise you to reconsider, unless you want to sound like a young girl!
  20. Use a mirror and / or a sheet of paper for identifying aspirated and non-aspirated sounds. Aspirated sounds are those with a short burst of here, such as ‘p‘ in ‘pen, and unaspirated sounds have no or little air, such as the ‘b‘ in ‘Ben‘. Watch this video to learn more.
  21. Practise tongue twisters. Tongue twisters are phrases designed to improve your pronunciation of particular sounds. Here is a list for kids but it’s great fun. Have a go now.Try saying this phrase quickly: What a terrible tongue twister. What a terrible tongue twister. What a terrible tongue twister.
  22. Practise spelling names, numbers and dates aloud. This may seem very basic to some of you but if you don’t practise, you forget how to say them.Have a go here at numbers here and at place names here.
  23. Learn about common intonation patterns. Intonation (when the pitch of the voice goes up and down) is complex in English but it is very important as it expresses the feeling or emotion of the speaker. Here is an amusing introduction to intonation.
  24. Learn about places of articulation. The articulators are the parts of the mouth we use to turn sound into speech. They can be fixed parts (the teeth, behind the teeth and the roof of the mouth) and mobile parts (the tongue, the lips, the soft palate, and the jaw).
  25. After looking at places of articulation, practise making the movements that native speakers use when they speak. Here’s a video and remember to open the jaws, move the lips and get your tongue moving!
  26. Learn why English is a stress-timed language. The rhythm of the language is based on stressed syllables so we shorten the unstressed syllables to fit the rhythm. Syllable-timed languages (such as Spanish) take the same time to pronounce each syllable. Here’s an explanation which might explain why you speak English like a robot or watch this funny clip here.
  27. Learn about ellipsis, assimilation and linking sounds.
  28. Learn how to interrupt and interject politely and successfully.
  29. Speak lower not higher. Studies show that you command attention and demonstrate authority with a deeper vocal tone, especially men. This is particularly important if you have to speak in public. Here is a quick guide.
  30. Listen and read along to poetry (or rap songs) to practise the rhythm of English. Limericks (short, funny, rhyming poems) are really useful and demonstrate how English is stress-timed and how we use weak forms.
  31. Learn exclamation words and fillers. Watch this video or study this list of 100 common exclamations here.
  32. Learn how to paraphrase. Paraphrasing is when we repeat what we have just said to make it clear to the listener or when we repeat what the other person has said by using different words. Here are a few to get started.
  33. Use contractions more. Contractions make your speech more efficient because they save time and energy. Say ‘should not’ and then say ‘shouldn’t’: which is easier to say? Very common in fluent speech.

In the next 33 days, spend 15 minutes every day on one of the tips. I’m sure you’ll notice a huge improvement.

And maybe one day you’ll speak English like Messi plays football!

Thanks for reading the post.

Posted by dilano in Smart Learning Strategies

Смотреть далее | 31.01.2017 | Отправить ссылку друзьям

Весёлая викторина про английские буквы

[ ответы внизу ]

1. Какая буква всё видит и вам подмигивает?
What English letter sees everything and winks at you?

2. В какой английской букве можно утонуть?
In what English letter can you drown?

3. Какая буква жужжит и жалит?
What English letter hums and stings?

4. Какая английская буква самая хвастливая?
What English letter is the most boasting one?

5. Какой буква утоляет нашу жажду?
What English letter quenches your thirst?

6. Какая буква пристаёт ко всем с вопросом: почему, зачем?
What English letter asks everyone why?

7. Какая буква прячется в стручке?
What English letter is hiding in the pod?

8. Какая буква умеет летать?
What English letter can fly?

9. Какая буква никогда не устаёт радостно восклицать?
What English letter is never tired of exclaiming with joy?

10. Какая буква всё время ТЫкает и ВЫкает?
What English letter always says «You»?

11. Из каких двух букв можно построить большой город?
With the help of what English letters can we build a city?

12. Что всегда стоит посередине английской реки?
What is in the middle of an English river?

13. Какой месяц в Англии короче всех?
What is the shortest English month?

14. В каком английском слове целых десять букв «t»?
What word has ten «T»s in it?

15. Какими станут чернила, если в них бросить английскую букву «K»?
What colour will the ink become, if you add the letter «K»?

16. Что нужно приделать к машине, чтобы она смогла плавать в реке?
What do we have to add to a car so that it could float?

17. Какую букву нужно положить в тяжёлый ранец, чтобы он легко и высоко полетел сам?
What letter do we need to put into the heavy kit so that it could fly high and light?

18. Что может превратить горошину в грушу?
What changes a pea into a pear?

19. Где июнь приходит раньше мая?
Where does June come before May?

20. А что может превратить грушу в жемчужину?
What changes a pear into a pearl?

21. Что делает английскую дорогу широкой?
What makes an English road broad?

22. Что общего имеют сахар и серебро?
What have sugar and silver in common?

23. Какое английское слово самое длинное? Какова его длина?
What is the longest English word? What is its length?

24. С чего начинается лето в Англии?
How does English summer always begin?

Ответы на викторину:

1. I [ай] - eye [ай] (глаз)

2. C [си] - sea [си] (море)

3. B [би] - bee [би] (пчела)

4. I [ай] - I [ай] (я)

5. T [ти] - tea [ти] (чай)

6. Y [уай] - Why? [уай] (почему? Зачем?)

7. P [пи] - pea [пи] (горошина)

8. J [джей] - jay [джей] (сойка)

9. O [оу] - Oh! [оу] (О!)

10. U [ю] - you [ю] (ты, вы)

11. C [си]+T [ти] - city [siti] (большой город)

12. V - RIVER (река)

13. MAY(май) - всего 3 буквы

14. TENT (палатка, тент)

15. PIN (чернила) + К = PINK(розовый)

16. Прибавить букву «Р» : CAR(машина) + P = CARP (карп)

17. Букву «Е»: KIT (ранец) + Е = KITE (бумажный змей)

18. Буква «R»: pea - pear

19. В словаре (In the dictionary)

20. Буква «L»: pear - pearl

21. Буква «B»: road - broad

22. Букву «S»: sugar - silver

23. Smiles - между двумя «S» - целая миля

24. С буквы «S» - summer

Смотреть далее | 31.01.2017 | Отправить ссылку друзьям

Фразовый глагол PULL

Фразовый глагол PULL

  1. Pull off - отходить, отъезжать
    If you’re feeling sleepy, pull off the road immediately and have a rest.
  2. Pull round - поправляться
    He was just beginning to pull round after his operation.
  3. Pull back - отступать
    Our tank forces pulled back to regroup.
  4. Pull away - выделяться, отрываться от лидера
    Sullivan pulled away in the final lap.
  5. Pull out - вынимать, выдвигать, отменять
    The firm is pulling out of the personal computer business.
  6. Pull up -останавливать, исправлять
    Their taxi pulled up outside the church.
  7. Pull on - натягивать одежду
    Emily pulled on her gloves as she walked.
  8. Pull down - снести
    The old warehouse has been pulled down.
  9. Pull in -останавливаться
    We pulled in at the side of the road.
  10. Pull apart- развести драку
    Aren’t you going to pull them apart?
  11. Pull ahead - опередить
    The German team pulled ahead in the next race.
  12. Pull over - останавливаться
    Let’s pull over and have a look at the map.
  13. Pull through -выжить, протянуть
    Don’t worry, your dad’s going to pull through
Фразовый глагол PULL
Смотреть далее | 30.01.2017 | Отправить ссылку друзьям

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